The results of Sport Test in TOCHIGI Prefecture in 1964 and 1968 showed the definite and consistent inclination that rural pupils recorded significantly better performance than urban ones in endurance run. This also implies that circulorespiratory capacity, which plays an important role in endurance type of exercise, is much influenced by the environmental conditions necessarily accompanied with each district. In the present study PWC170 kpm/kg as an index of circulorespiratory capacity were measured by means of MONARK bicycle ergometer and ECG in the two couples of urban and rural groups of pupils aged from 12 to 15 years, and the comparisons of urban and rural indicated that rural pupils had considerably better than urban ones with significant difference. In one couple of the two the pupils of the school surrounded with commercial streets and the ones in mountaneous farm village were contrasted in order to design the ecological research, because the latter was the best and the former the worst in endurance run 85.6% of the pupils in the mountaineous farm village go to school far from home by pedaling bicycle ascending or descending the slopes, and on the other hand all the pupils in the commercial streets walk to school along the horizontal and flat streets nearer than in the mountaineous farm village In Japan an amount of intraschool physical activities are almost the same in all schools and therefore the differences of daily physical activities, the degree of which brings about the circulorespiratory improvement, depend on the work of attending school long through the years. In this study the extent of the work load in attending school was estimated by heart rate-oxygen uptake curve on the basis of the mean heart rate derived from telemetering heart beats all through the courses between school and home. This procedure reveals the evidence that mountaineous farm pupils by bicycle are given the work load equivalent to 40% or more of the maximal oxygen uptake, which means the stroke volume reaches its peak and becomes the adequate training stimulus for circulorespiratory improvement, but for the pupils in commercial streets vice versa. And furthermore it was also found that the farther from school, the better the circulo-respiratory capacity in the mountaineous farm district Though there was found to be the significant difference between them in PWC170 as submaximal test, no significant difference was indicated in maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg, STPD) . This may be due to the fact that in pedaling in step wise method of increasing brake resistance distress or fatigue in leg muscles proceeds the circulorespiratory one.
The body-type of members of the Japanese Olympic ice hockey team was studied and compared with that of the members of the Polish goodwill ice hockey team that came to Japan early this year (1971) . Sheldon, Cureton, and Yokobori's classification of body-type was used in the study, and with regard to measurements of body-type and indeces, methods deviced by the authors were adopted. Results obtained were as follows: 1. As shown in Table 5 the body-type of the Japanese players as represented by indeces, belong to type 445, and that of the Polish players to 467. A graphic representation of the indeces when applied to the triangular body-type chart is shown in Fig. II. From the illustration it may be understood that the Polish players have superior physique and muscle factors. 2. Table 8 shows individual body-type classified into 10 classes according to Cureton's method. The Table shows that 68.7% of the Polish athletes belong to the superior class of A+ mesomorph and that only 17.5% of the Japanes players belong to this class, indicating the superior body-type of the Polish players. 3. The Polish and Japanese players are compared with regard to their respective positions in the team in Tables 6 and 7. The Tables show that 80% of the Polish forwards consist of mesomorph and 26.3% of the Japanese forwards consist of mesomedials indicating that the Polish forwards are superior from the standpoint of body-type. No significant difference in the body-type of the defence and goalkeepers of the two teams was found. 4. Table 5 compares the body-type of the Japanese ice-hockey players with that of athletes of other sports. The high level of the fat factor in the Japanese ice-hockey players is noteworthy, while the Polish ice-hockey players even when compared to the athletes of other sports show superiority in the physique and muscle factor.