I. Aim and Method The cause of the stabbing pain in the side during exercise is not definitely known for the physiologist cannot be sure its appearance when he is prepared to study it. Therefore, in order to reveal the cause of this abdominal pain, the authors carried out first an investigation, then, on the basis of the result of the investigation, made attempt to induce the pain in the two series of experiments without any drug, balloon and so on. In the investigation, the questionnares were distributed to the 200 young male athletes to know about their experience of the abdominal pain during exercise and about the relations between the pain and weather, physical condition, kind of exercise and eating-exercise time interval. In the first series of experiments, eight healthy male students have not the history of an alimentary disorder were selected as the subject. Each subject came to the laboratory after fasting for eight and over hours, then they were loaded one of the two intensities of running on a treadmill in accordance with the procedure as showed in Tab. 1. In the second series of experiments, six of the eight subjects of the first series of experiments were selected as the subject for they complained the pain during running which carried out immediately after drinking or eating. Each subject was loaded walking on a treadmill and cycling on a bicycle ergometer in accordance with the procedure as showed in Tab.2. And this cycling requires about the same oxygen cost as the running at 240meters per minute. The test meal was consisted of baked egg (200g), fish ham (50g), raw cabbage (50g) and boild rice, and before the drinking or eating, each subject was advised to take water or boild rice as much as possible. When the subject complained the pain during exercise, the exercise was stopped about one minute later. II. Result and Conclusion. The pain was found 24 cases during running and only one case during cycling. In 72% of these 25 cases, a great deal of abdominal gas and excreta was found, and in 42% of 31 cases which were not found the pain, a great deal of abdominal gas and excreta was also found. Most of regions of the pain were middle and lower abdomen (80%), and specially in the experiments carried out relatively short time after eating, most of regions of the pain were left side abdomen (86%) . As for the time interval between the eating and exercise, the shorter the time interval, the higher rate of the pain was found. In every case, the pain stopped within seven minutes after exercise and any effect on the body was not found. From the result described above, it may conclude that the staple causes of the abdominal pain during exercise are (1) the abdominal gas or excreta is concentrated locally in the stomach or intestin by the movement of the body during exercise and distends the diaphragm or intestin, and (2) the stomach or intestin which is enlarged by the substances is rocked and tossed by the movement of the body during exercise and stimulates physically or chemically (local anaemia) to the mesentery or interior organs and so on.
To estimate the subjective or physiological intensity of work, many index have been employed concerning the functional responses of oxygen transport system. In this study the validity of the index VO2/VO2max was discussed. 22 untrained healthy boys aged 16 were selected for the program, and the work was performed with a bicycle ergometer. Work load was increased progressively; 720 kpm/ min (2kp × 60rpm) for the first two minutes, and then increased 180 kpm/min (0.5 kp × 60 rpm) every successive minute to exhaustion. VO2 and heart rate were measured at each step of load intensity. The expired air was collected in Douglas bag and was analyzed by Sholander apparatus for oxygen and carbon dioxyde. There were some individual differences in correlation curves of VE to VO2 and of FEO2 to VO2. The differences, however, were reduced and almost the similar curves were obtained when VE and FEO2 were plotted against VO2/VO2 max instead of VO2. VO2/VO2 max and HR/HR max gave a very high correlation, 0.96. Though the correlation between VO2 max and total work performed in exercise was 0.68, the correlation between VO2/VO2 max and total work was-0.89. From these results, we should say that the index VO2/VO2 max and other functional index using their maximal values as denominator may be quite useful. And also we may assume that the work can be done with the highest efficiency when VO2, heart rate, FEO2, VE and probably some other physiological functions are at about 60% of their maximum. At least, we may say that there might occur some changes at this point in physiological conditions relating to the work capacity.
The present study was aimed to elucidate the relationships between the capacity of oxygen uptake and low atmospheric pressure. Four anesthetized male dogs were exposed to low pressure of different grades ; 560 mmHg, 460 mmHg, 360 mmHg, and 260 mmHg in a decompression chamber. Blood was drawn from femoral artery and vein through polyethylen tube to outside the chamber. The tube was filled with heparin in order to avoid coagulation when it was not in use. The blood was subjected to determination of oxygen content and oxygen capacity by means of Van Slyke method. Oxygen tension was determined from Hb-Oxygen dissociation curve at pH 7.40. Arterial and venous oxygen content decreased with lowering the pressure, and the rate of decrease was higher in CaO2 than in CvO2. Thus Ca-vO2 difference decreased from 5.5 vol% (at the control level) to 2.6 vol% (at 260 mmHg.) . Though the mean oxygen capacity was 20.0 vol% and did not change at 560 mmHg, a significant increase was found at 460 mmHg and 360 mmHg ; they were 20.3 vol% and 20.9 vol% respectively. PaO2 fell parallel with lowering of environmental pressure from 92.0 mmHg at 760 mmHg to 29.7 mmHg at 260 mmHg ambient pressure. As venous oxygen tension exhibited a slight decline in contrast to PaO2, Pa-vO2 difference became smaller according to lowering the environmental pressure. The difference was 41.4 mmHg at the control level and 4.2 mmHg at 260 mmHg. In conclusion, we should say that there seems to be two phases in the change of DLO2 in hypoxic condition. In the first phase, the diffusion gradient decreases lineally with the ambient pressure and VO2 is unchanged or shows only a slight decrease even in a relatively lower pressure. There may be an increase of DLO2 accompanied with increase of cardiac output. In much lower ambient pressure, however, there appears the other phase in which QH and also DLO2 decrease and in turn an apparent decrease of VO2 can be seen.
Since manifestation of exercise proteinuria was reported by Leube (1878), the nature of exercise urinary protein has been extensively studied. The physiological mechanisms of increased excretion of urinary protein during and after exercise still remain to be obscured. The investigation presented here, were performed for the purpose of knowing the decreasing rate of soccer players body weight in each position during the soccer game, which was considered as a prolonged heavy exercise, of identifing the excretion of exercise proteinuria after performance of the game, and of studying the relation among urinary total protein at that time and its fraction in disc-electrophoresis. The protein fractions of urine by disc-electrophoresis, compared with serum, manifested slight albumin fraction at rest, but it much increased after the game, and furthermore α1-, α2-globulin, transf errin and γ-globulin were observed. The decreasing rate of body weight, total protein level and its albumin fraction mutually have the parallel relationship. Urine albumin fraction could have a relation to the decrease of body weight of athlete in each position rather than total protein. These results mentioned above would suggest the exsistence of some relationship between the total volume of exercise and excretion of urine protein, especially albumin.