In order to examine some aspects of the function of the sensory-motor cortex in voluntary movements, the selective reaction was studied against photic stimulation. An experimental board was constracted, on which there were 12 lamps equally spaced on a circle (radius 32cm) and a key at the center of the circle. An electrical signal appeared when a lightening lamp or the lamp at the opposite position relative to the lightening one touched. Ten healthy male and female subjects were selected, whose age ranged from 19 to 32. The subject stood in front of the board, softly touched the key with his/her Digitus Medius and looked at the key. The surrounding lamps were imaged on the field of indirect vision. When one of the lamps was lightened, the subject touched as quickly as possible the lightening lamp (named this action as “catching action”) or the opposite lamp (“avoiding action”), following the initial instruction. The following three cases were studied : (a) 2 directions ; one of the two lamps (NO. 1 & 7) was lightened, (b) 4 directions ; one of the four lamps (No. 1, 4, 7 & 10) was lightened and (c) 12 directions ; one of 12 lamps was lightened. This order was assumed to be in the increasing load condition. The EMG was also recorded, so that we could measure the following five characteristic time 1. Total Time (TT), the time interval between the moment of lightening of a lamp (light stimulation) and the moment of touching the target lamp. 2. Reaction Time (RT), the time interval from the beginning if the light stimlation to the release of the finger from the key. 3. Muscle Contraction Time (MCT), the time interval from the release of the finger from the key to the moment of touching the target lamp. 4. Premotor Time (PMT), the time interval from the beginning of the light stimulation to the onset of discharge on EMG. 5. Motor Time (MT), the time interval from the onset of discharge on EMG to the release of the finger from the key. The following results were obtained ; 1) In both cases of the dominant and non-dominant hands, TT, RT and MCT were longer in the avoiding than in the catching actions. This trend was independent of the above three load conditions. 2) In both catching and avoiding actions, most of the experimental results distributed nearly normally on the histograms of frequency versus characteristic time 3) When the load condition was changed from (a) to (c), RT and PMT clearly shortened but no appreciable change in MCT was observed in the catching action, while RT showed a trend to lengthen in the avoiding action.
It is significant for whole body training of endurance ability or exerise as rehabilitation treatment of various diseases, that a fixed quantity of exercise in response to a defined level of heart rate could be loaded voluntarily. In the present studies it was determined heart rate, respiration rate, number of steps, treadmill speed, moreover, relationship between treadmill speed and heart rate, sudden change of exercise strength on intentional fixed quantity exercise in response to previously defined level of heart rate could be loaded by treadmill connected with “Heart Rate Controller (Quinton Co., Ltd.) ”. A series of patterns in treadmill running of the normal adult males were analyzed. On the other hand, transition of blood chemical substances during above exercise at defined heart rate were determined by use of the SMAC-System autoanalyzed (Technicon Co., Ltd.) . The obtained results in the follows; 1) The relation between treadmill speed and heart rate defined at 130 beats/min, 150 or 170 each, are as follows. a) Treadmill speed at heart rate, previously defined as 130 b/min was 80±5-12 meters/min, actual heart rate during above exercise was 130±3-8 b/min in record. b) Treadmill speed at heart rate, 150 b/min was 100 ±9-18 m/min, actual heart rate 150±6-8 b/min in record. c) Treadmill speed at heart rate, 170 b/min was 130±10-33 m/min, actual heart rate 170±3-9 b/min in record. 2) In the present studies respiratory rate during exercise at defined heart rate level neither altered nor had relation with treadmill speed. The number of steps did not alter, rather appeared to determine respiratory rate. 3) When sudden change of exercise strength during exercise at defined heart rate level appeared, for instances, treadmill speed got quicker, deviated raise of rate from defined heart rate level varied by the individuals and also load on heart itself did by the individuals. 4) In determination of blood chemical substances during exercise at defined 150 b/min or 170 b/min of heart rate level by SMAC-System, transition of above substances were observed to be within normal range but thier levels before exercise were promptly restored. From the results mentioned above it is suggested that process of intermediated metabolism during above exercise could be considerably stable and exercise load at a defined heart rate level can be prescribed intentionally.
The motions are manifested by the built-in motion programing within the central nerve system. It was investigated by means of a simple keypushing motion on what variations in the motions would be developed by alterations in the programing. The key-pushing motion consists in pushing two or four keys in designated orders according to the photic stimulation, and the reaction time and motion time in this case were determined. The key-pushing was performed in accordance with the 4 types of programing. The results were as indicated hereunder. 1) The motion time was shorter when the number of keys to be pushed is less in comparison with the larger number of the keys. 2) The variations in the programing within the central nerve system are more influential upon the initial stage of the motion, i. e. the pushing procedures of the first and the second keys. 3) The delays in the reaction time were more remarkable in children in any programing than in the adults. The errorneous key-pushing motion was more frequently noted in the action to push the first key.