The purpose of this study is to clarify influence of physical load on the liver function during an intensive athletic training camp, especially from the aspect of clearance ability of indocyaine green by the liver. The experimental subjects consisted of 12 male students in a track and field clubs, aged 16 to 20 years, who were subjected to a 7-day track and field training. Their physiological functions such as Flicker fusion frequency, Patellar refrex and Near point were measured every day during the training period, and ICG test and measurements of various blood components and serum enzymes were conducted early in the morning at the basal condition, on the firstday, the intermediate (4th day), and the final day (7th day) of the training period. The experimental results were obtaind as below. 1. Judging from the variation of the physiological function and blood values, it was surely assumed that the physical stress was strongest on the intermediate day of training period. 2. The activation of serum enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH, CPK) showed a rapid rise on the intermediate day and then a slight decline toward the final day. 3. Concerning ICG test, serum disapperrance rate of ICG (K) on the final day lowered significantly, comparing with that on the first day, while 15-minites retention rate (R5) rose significantly. The above results verified a delay of ICG clerance in the liver. 4. Significant correlations were found between the changes of both R15 and K from the first to the final day and those of GOT, LDH and near point, respectively. 5. ICG test conducted for the other three subjects on the intermediate day, on the final day and 2 weeks after the training period, revealed that K value on the intermediate day was lower than that on the final day and the value 2 weeks after was highest. This result suggests that the liver function was lowest on the intermediate day, corresponding to the changes of the physiological function mentioned in 1), of serum enzymes mentioned in 2), and behavior of leukocytes measured by Ishihara on the same subjects. The above results obtained by the present study suggest that the lowering of liver function participates closely in stress and fatigue due to the heavy athletic training.
The purpose of the present study was to construct an appropriate flexibility test battery for competitive swimmers. Twelve flexibility tests which have been validated to measure the flexibility of various parts of body were adminstrated to 153 skilled college swimmers. For the purpose mentioned above, factor analytic procedures were applied to the correlation matrix consisted of 12 flexibility measures and 5 variables derived from some of these 12 measures. As a result, the six factors were extracted and interpreted as follows : I) trunk rotation flexibility, II) trunk lateral flexibility, III) shoulder flexibility, IV) ankle extension and mobility flexibility, V) trunk flexion and extension flexibility, and VI) ankle flexion flexibility. Taking the factorial validity, reliability, and practicability of tests into consideration, the following 6 test items were chosen ; trunk rotation (right) (X1), trunk lateral flexion (right) (X2), shoulder extension (X3), ankle extension (X4), trunk flexion (X5), and ankle flexion (X6) . Then, the following conventional fomulas for estimating each flexibility factor score were developed ; FS1=0.9X1-79.1, FS2=1.9X2 -49.6, FS3=0.7X3-98.9, FS4=1.8 X4 -250.6, FS5 =1.3X5 -141.7, and FS6 = 2.5X6 -179.3.
Thirty-nine 50-days-old female rats of Wistar strain were divided into three dietary groups (high carbohydrate, high protein, high fat), and each dietary group was further divided into sedentary and exercising subgroups. While the sedentary rats were housed in individual small cages all day long, the exercising rats were subjected to one-hour treadmill running 6 days/week. After the 5-week experimental period, the following results were obtained. 1) No difference in the increase of body weight was observed between sedentary and exercising rats of the high carbohydrate dietary group. In the high fat dietary group sedentary rats, and in the high protein dietary group exercising rats, gained significantly greater body weight. Increase of body weight varied among sedentary subgroups of different diets, but not among exercising subgroups. 2) Body fat content was significantly higher in sedentary than in exercising rats of all three dietary groups. Lean body mass and protein content of gastrocnemius and heart were greater in exercising than in sedentary rats. Liver fat content was significantly lower in exercising than in sedentary rats of high carbohydrate and high fat dietary groups. Lean body mass and muscle prontein content were highest in high protein dietary exercising group. 3) Effecs of diet and exercise on blood composition were not clarified, but at least exercising rats did not show any sign of anemia. No significant difference in weight and length of tibia and femur was obserbale among groups.
The authors have been studying lumbar disturbances among top class atheletes in Japan and it was proved that the incidence of spondylolysis was surprisingly high among these sports items compared with ordinary people. The mechanical breakdown owing to heavy loads at the pars interarticularis is thought to be one of the causautive factors of spondylolysis. In order to prove this hypothesis, we performed the experimental studies using fresh cadavers. In these experiments the strain at various points was measurad during three directional movements of the spinal column with continuous loading, antero-posterior, lateral and rotational ones. Regarding to antero-posterior bending, remarkable deformities were recognized on the pars interarticularis of the fifth lumbar vertebra during posterior bending compared with anterior bending. At the time of rotational bending, of the spinal column in extention deformities at the pars interarticularis showed twice as large as those in neutral position. Furthermore, at rotational bending the deformities at that site considerably increased according to increasing axial loads on the spinal column. These results suggest that the repetitive stress on the pars interarticularis during sports activity may cause fatigue fracture on that part.