This paper is intended to give the information we need about personal reactivity to transient loads for the object of estimating human physical fitness. For this purpose, both serum immunoglobulin levels and neutrophilic phagocytosis were assayed as indices to self-defense activities. To determine the later described reproducibility of experimental results, two independent experiments were made on two different groups -one consisting of twelve and the other of fourteen male voluntary students of our college- exercised in the playgroud. The serum levels of three immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) and two complements (C3 and C4), prior to and immediately after exercise, were compared with each other. They rose without exception after exercise. Paired T-test revealed that in the group of twelve students, rises in IgG, IgA, C3, α-1-antitrypsin and transferrin were significant at P<0.1%, 5%, 5%, 5% and 0.1%, and in the group of fourteen rises in IgG, IgA, IgM, C 3, C 4, α-1-antitrypsin and transferrin were significant at P<1%, 0.1%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.1% and 0.1%, respectively. In the meantime, the neutrophilic phagocytosis (%) was significantly decreased immediately after exercise in both groups (P-<1% and P-<0.1% respectively) .
In order to clarify the relationship between acute physical exercise and immunity, the numbers of overall leucocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils, the concentrations of immunoglo-bulins and complements, the ratios of lymphocyte subsets (OKT 3, 4, 8, Leu 7, OKIa 1) and the levels of lymphocyte transformation response to PHA were measured in nine untrained male subjects (18-22 years old) before, immediately after, along with 24 and 72 hours after acute physical exercise at 50% of VO2max for 2 hours. Before exercise all components were within normal range. Exercise produced a significant rise in the number of leucocytes and neutrophils overall. The response of lymphocytes to PHA immediately after exercise was significantly lower than before, or 24 hours or 72 hours after exercise. There was no change in the number of lymphocytes, or in the concentration of immunoglo-bulins and complements before and after exercise. Likewise the ratios of lymphocyte subsets also remained unchanged. From these results, it can be concluded that acute physical exercise by untrained subjects is one kind of physical stressor and can contribute to T cell dysfunction.
The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of warming-up (W-up) on the blood lactate kinetics during 5 minutes of pedaling exercise. Five healthy male adults were the subjects. The intencity of the criterion task (CT) was about 80% VO2max, and that of the W-up was a work load corresponding to the anaerobic threshold. Between W-up and CT there were five-minute rest periods on the bicycle ergometer. In order to determine the blood lactate values, blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein at the following times: rest, pre-CT, and 3, 5, 7, and 30-minutes after CT. Expired gas was analysed continuously for the calculation of VO2, VCO2, R, VE. The heart rate was recorded every min-ute from ECG. Blood lactate values increased 3.23±0.91 mmol/l after W-up, a significant increase over the resting values. The peak blood lactate during the W-up experiment (4.62±0.84 mmol/l) was significantly lower than that of the control experiment (6.48±1.69 mmol/l) . Differences in lactate before and after CT (ΔLa) was found to be significantly lower in experiments with W-up (1.39±0.99 mmol/l) as compared with control experiments (5.37±1.62 mmol/l) . In one subject, the blood lactate levels decreased during CT after W-up, while lactate levels increased during CT without W-up. VO2 during CT were very similar in both experiments. These results indicate that this kind of W-up delays the rate of blood lactate accumulation during CT.
102 water polo players were interviewd about the injuries caused by water polo. 13% of the subjects had knee pain at least once a year. 73% of which were chronic cases. For 24 players, clinical examinations, including X-ray examination, A-P knee laxity measurement, isokinetic strength measurement of knee muscles, and photo analysis of the vertical egg beater kick motion were performed to elucidate the cause of knee pain. The summary of the results were as follows; 1. The most common site of knee pain was the medial portion of the knee joint. 2. Protrusion of the medial femoral epicondyle and sharpning of the tibial intercondylar eminentia as well as spur formation of the superior pole of the patella were observed in most subjects. 3. Injured subjects had stiff knees and weak knee extensor muscles. 4. The vertical egg beater kick motion must be the main factor of the painful knee.