The present study was designed to investigate the effects of low altitude training on swimming performance with setting the same duration (3-wk) and the same level of altitude (2, 300m) . Eight male (Gm1) swimmers aged 13 to 19 years and four male (Gm2) and eight female (Gf2) swimmers aged 13 to 18 years sent to Mexico City, and they conducted swimming work outs. All of them were top Japanese swimmers of various events. They repeated the swimming training twice a day continuously for four days with one day rest. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC) and hematocrit (Hct) were determined before, during and after the altitude training several times. The values of Hb, RBC and Hct of all three groups increased significantly from before training to after training except Hb in Gm1. On the other hand, these three variables did not necessarily increase during the altitude training. Gm1 and Gf2 tended to increase Hb and RBC during the training. As for swimming performance at sea level, the individual best swimming records were improved significantly in 200m events, but not in 100m events in Gm1. Therefore, it may be concluded that 3-wk altitude (2, 300m) training possibly improve swimming performance in the events equal to or longer than 200m at sea level.
The purpose of this study was to compare two methods of CO2 rebreathing-equilibrium method (Collier, 1965) and extrapolation method (Defares, 1958) -for determining the mixed venous CO2 pressure (PvCO2) during exercise. Following a sitting rest for 5 min, five healthy males performed upright bicycle ergometer exercises with work rate of 100 and 150W for 5 min. During both at rest and in exercise, PvCO2 was measured twice to evaluate the reproducibility of both methods. The equilibrium method was performed according to that by Jones & Campbell (1982) . In the extrapolation method, instead of using the graphical analysis described by Klauaen (1965), PvCO2 was directly calculated by applying the modified exponential equation (Defares, 1958) . In the duplicate tests, coefficient of variation was lower while correlation coefficient was higher, with increasing work rate in both methods. It was noted that these tendencies were more pronounced in the extrapolation method than in the equilibrium method. It was concluded that in contrast to the results of Auchincloss et al. (1980), the extrapolation method was more reproducible than the equilibrium method.
Six male and seven female children, aged five or six years, ran on the flat treadmill increasing running speeds every two minutes by 20 m/min till their subjective exhaustions. The first steps were started with the speeds of 80 or 100 m/min and the rest periods of 30 seconds were inserted between each successive step for the blood sampling. Expired airs for the determination of oxygen uptakes were collected during the last 30 seconds of every stage. Heart rates were recorded for each subject throughout the whole test session. Two male and two female subjects were selected in order to determine their physical activity levels in the nursery school. Their heart rates were recorded from Monday to Saturday in a given week. Analyses of physical activity patterns were tried by relating heart rate levels to circulorespiratory variables which were equivalent to 3 or 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration (3m MLA or 4m MLA) . By so doing, the following results were obtained: 1) Mean values of blood lactate concentrations observed immediately after the cessation of the last exhaustive steps were 5.16 m MLA for males and 4.70 m MLA for females. 2) Relative values of heart rate to 3 and 4 m MLA against maximal heart rate (% HRmax-3 m MLA and % HRmax-4 m MLA) were respectively 92.2% HRmax-3 m MLA and 97.5% HRmax-4m MLA for males and 94.9% HRmax-3 m MLA and 98.2% HRmax-4 m MLA for females. The corresponding relative values of oxygen uptakes were 85.2% Vo2max-3 m MLA and 94.3% Vo2max-4 m MLA for males and 89.7% Vo2max-3 m MLA and 96% Vo2max-4 m MLA for females. 3) Mean values of heart rate recorded in the nursery through a given week except Sunday ranged from 89 to 114 beats/min for males and 106 to 126 beats/min for females. In the relative value of a heart rate against the heart rate equivalent to 4 m MLA, that is, HR 4 m MLA these values correspond to 44-57% HR 4 m MLA and 57-67% HR 4 m MLA respectively. 4) Accumulated duration time: Their hearts beat higher than 160 beats/min, except in the case of 800 m endurance run (only 0-4 and 0-6 minutes for males and 0-6 and 4-21 (touch of tachycardia) minutes for females) . Percentages of accumulated duration time lower than 120 beats/min occupied 72-94% and 77-91% of 6 or 7-hour nursing time for males and 51-91% and 51-78% for females. 5) Absolute and relative values of mean heart rates in 800 m endurance run ranged from 183 beats/min (Net 83% HRmax, 90% HR 4 m MLA) to 199 beats/min (Net 98% HRmax, 104% HR 4 m MLA) for males and from 172 beats/min (Net 77% HRmax, 92% HR 4 m MLA) to 196 beats/min (Net 92% HRmax, 96% HR 4 m MLA), though the duration times were short. 6) Optimal intensity of work load was proposed to be the heart rate level of at least 190 beats/min for favourable development and/or improvement of the circulo-respiratory system in young children.
Changes in myoproteins during development of rat skeletal muscle were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In M, soleus (SOL) which in adult, is composed predominantly of slow twitch fibers, fast type myosin light chains (fLC) were the major species and slow type light chains (sLC) were the minor species at birth. During development, the replacement rate of fLC to sLC sequentially occured so that LC patterns at 21 days postpartum were similar to adult where fLC were difficult to visualize. In contrast, M. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) always contained dominant fLC although sLC were found only for 5-9 days. LC 3 f became detectable at 5 days and gradually increased. In α-tropomyosin there were isozymes of fast and slow type based on difference in molecular weight, but not in β-tropo-myosin. Changes in isozymes of α-tropomyosin approximately corresponded with that in isozymes (fast and slow type) of LC in both EDL and SOL. During adult stage following birth, in EDL creatine kinase underwent a three-fold increase in molecular ratio to actin, whereas in SOL there was little change though increase took place transiently. These results suggest that with develoment many myoproteins change more dramatically in slow muscle than in fast muscle, and that transitions in LC isozymes and changes in distribution of histochemically typed muscle fibers may follow different time courses.