体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
38 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の3件中1~3を表示しています
  • 乾 信之
    1989 年 38 巻 4 号 p. 133-138
    発行日: 1989/08/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to examine how human performance organized by motor learning is reorganized through changes in the central program and structural parameter by using a tracking task of serial pattern.
    On the one hand, the subjects who had to adjust themselves to the changed central program (program group) tried to execute the corresponding switch responses coincident with light onsets in 20 trials in the first half and tried to complete perfectly with anticipatory response in 20 trials in the second half. On the other hand, the subjects who had to adjust themselves to the changed structural parameter (parameter group) tried to execute the corresponding switch responses coincident with light onsets in 40 trials. The serial patterns which subjects tracked were 352415 in the program group and 352415 in the first half of the parameter group and 352451 in the second half of that group. The stimulus interval (100 ms) and the interstimulus interval (400 ms) were always constant. The subjects were 20 right-handed female students, being randomly assigned to the 2 groups with 10 subjects respectively.
    In both groups, the proportion of correct responses amounted approximately to 7090% of the total response in the first half. Both groups increased the correct and anticipatory responses in the final phase of the first half. The program group, however, remarkably decreased the correct responses (7.03%) and markedly increased the anticipatory responses (42.16%) in the final phase of the second half. The program group in the first half was different from the one in the second half in structuring its own performance. In the parameter group, on the other hand, the performance in the final phase of the second half (anticipatory response : 25.00%) was higher than that of the first half (anticipatory response : 4.46%) although the performance without anticipatory response in the initial phase of the second half was lower than the one in the final phase of the first half. This finding was taken as an order through fluctuation.
  • 末永 政治, 飯干 明, 仙波 伊知郎
    1989 年 38 巻 4 号 p. 139-150
    発行日: 1989/08/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human femora obtained from a cadaver of a 70-year-old man were examined by means of bone histometry, image-analysis on X-ray radiographs and a mechanical strength test in order to investigate the effects of disuse on the femora. The patient had been bedfast for seven months until his death because of an amputation of the left lower leg due to a diabetic intractable ulcer on the foot caused by a burn. Other detail records of the medical and the life-style history were also examined.
    A marked atrophy of the muscles of the hip and thigh was observed on the amputated side. The macroscopic shape and proportion of the femora were not significantly different between both sides. The results of bending strength test at the mid shaft, disclosed a marked mechanical fragility on the amputated side. The cortical bone area in the shaft showed no significant difference between both sides. However, the degree of bone loss was more pronounced at the anterior region of both shafts. The trabecular bone at the femoral head showed a marked atrophy on the amputated side, especially at the principal compressive group of the trabecular bone. This atrophy was thought to be due to the absence of the compressive stress because of the disuse caused by the amputation. A trabecular bone atrophy was also observed on the normal side and its degree of atrophy was greater than that of agematched values. The multiple systemic factors such as the diabetes and the bedfast condition might had influenced on the bone metabolism in this case, therefore the careful examination of the systemic conditions was required to disclose the effects of local mechanical conditions on the bone metabolism.
  • 古賀 俊策, 対馬 清造, 上村 崇, 櫻井 隆行, 高橋 恒雄, 福場 良之, 池上 晴夫
    1989 年 38 巻 4 号 p. 151-164
    発行日: 1989/08/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    運動時の口腔レベルと肺胞レベルにおけるbreath-by-breathガス交換動態の相違点を明らかにし, かつ肺胞レベルのガス交換推定の問題点について考察した.
    呼気ガスの流速と濃度を測定する方法 (呼気流速法) によって口腔レベルのガス交換値を求めた.更に, 吸気ガスの流速と濃度を測定し, 吸気と呼気のガス量の差に肺ガス貯留量の補正を加える方法 (肺胞ガス交換推定法) によって肺胞レベルのガス交換値を推定した.成人男子5名を用いてコンピューター制御の自転車エルゴメーターによる一定強度負荷 (150, 200, 250W) , およびランプ負荷 (30W/min) の運動実験をおこなった.ガス交換動態の非線形最小二乗法による近似計算に一次指数モデルと合成指数モデルを適用した.得られた主な結果は次の通りである.
    1.負荷強度および負荷形態の違いに関わらず, 呼吸毎の口腔レベルのガス交換値は肺胞レベルのガス交換値に比ベて変動が大きく, 非定常状態だけではなく定常状態においてもその傾向が認められた.その原因として呼吸毎の口腔レベルの窒素交換量と肺容量の変動の相関が高いことから, 肺容量の変動により口腔レベルの窒素平衡が成立しないことが示された.2.一定強度運動開始後の非定常状態においては, 負荷強度に関わらず肺胞レベルのVoら, 肺容量の変動により口腔レベルの窒素平衡が成立しないことが示された.の時定数は口腔レベルのVo2ら, 肺容量の変動により口腔レベルの窒素平衡が成立しないことが示された.のそれより小さかったが, Vco2については口腔レベルの時定数が, 肺胞レベルのそれよりも小さくなった.これは肺のO2貯留量とCO2貯留量の変動による口腔レベルのVo2とVco2の誤差によるものと考えられる.ランプ負荷における肺胞レベルのVo2とVco2の応答は口腔レベルのそれよりも速かった.
    3.一定強度負荷における定常状態期や第3相では肺胞レベルのガス交換平均値は, 口腔レベルのそれに等しかった.この理由として, 呼吸毎の肺ガス貯留量の変動が一定期間にわたって累積される場合, 平均値としては一定であることが考えられる.
    4.肺胞ガス交換推定法においては, 呼気終末肺容量の推定, および肺胞ガス濃度と換気・血流分布の関係が考慮すべき点として挙げられる.更にこの方法では, 呼気と吸気の組合せにずれを生じた場合, ガス交換値の誤差が増加するので, 測定システムの精度の向上, および誤差補正の演算処理が必要とされた.
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