A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a sagittal position of the body gravity center (GCP) and manual weight-load on postural control during rapid arm-lifting. The subjects were five males aged 21 to 36 years. They stood on a force plate while maintaining the GCP at 30%, 45% and 60% from the heel, regarding the fool length as 100%, and anteriorly lifted both arms spontaneously as rapidly as possible. These trials were carried out ten times under a 5 kg weight or no weight. EMGs of the biceps femoris muscle (BFM) and anterior deltoid muscle (ADM), the fluctuation of the center of foot pressure (CFP) and body motion were analyzed by focusing on their time sequences. At 45% and 60% GCP the BFM action started prior to the ADM action, whereas at 30% GCP it tended to lag behind. The lag times under no weight were 13.9±12.75 ms (mean±SD) at 30% GCP, -32.7±18.18 ms at 45% GCP and -46.0±19.40 ms at 60% GCP. Those under 5 kg weight were 15.0±11.40 ms at 30% GCP, -22.0±6.74 ms at 45% GCP and -28.9±7.63 ms at 60% GCP. These results indicate that the anticipatory action of the muscle related to postural control arises only at specific GCPs. The difference of starting points for BFM action to ADM action showed no significant difference between 45% and 60% GCP for either as 5 kg or no weight. The CFP position moving in a forward direction during arm-lifting showed a marked difference between 45% and 60% GCP. The time for arm-lifting showed a marked difference between 5 kg and no weight. These results suggest that the starting point of anticipatory muscle action related to postural control does not change according to the magnitude and time course of the distance to the body equilibrium as a result of arm-lifting.
Ten athletic women (5 normal ovulatory cycles, 5 short luteal phases) and 6 non-athletic women with normal ovulatory cycles were subjected to an investigation of episodic gonadotropin secretion. In the middle follicular phase, blood samples were obtained via an indwelling venous catheter every 15 minutes for 4 hours. Mean levels of gonadotropins in both athletic groups were lower (p<0.001) than in the control group. LH pulse frequencies in the short luteal group were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001) . LH pulse amplitudes were similar in all groups. FSH dynamics were the same as those for LH. In athletic women, low mean levels and infrequent episodic secretion of gonadotropins were obvious. These data suggest that strenuous athletic activity may cause hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency, especially that of hypothalamic origin.