The purposes of this study were to examine reliability and validity of ADL index for older people at home, and relationships between ADL score and various factors (ex. self-assessment of health status and physical fitness level, and exercise frequency/week), and to examine the screening basis for execution of physical fitness test based on distribution of ADL score. A questionnaire consisting of 12 ADL items and a physical fitness test of Ministry of Education, Science and Clture were administered to 5, 715 subjects 65 years or more age (male: 2, 745; female: 2, 970) . As a result of examining test-retest reliability of the ADL index, significant high correlations were shown among 12 ADL items (0.674≤r≤0.886), and in overall score (r=0.943) . The ADL score was significantly related to age and physical fitness test scores, and tended to be higher in subjects with a higher self-assessment of health status and physical fitness level, and with more frequency. It was suggested that these results prove the utility of the present ADL index. Further, as the result of examining relationships between distribution of overall ADL score and physical fitness test scores, the following screening bases were considered to be valid for judgement whether the physical fitness tests could be executed. The three screening bases using overall ADL score were: 1) 12 or under; 2) over 13 to under 24; 3) 24 and over. The four bases using item score were: 1) a category 1 response for items 1, 5 and 6; 2) a category 2 or 3 response for items 1, 5 and 6, and a category 1 response for items 3 and 4; 3) a category 3 response for items 2 and 14; 4) a category 1 response for items 10 and 12.
The effects of exercise and dietary therapy on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy (DN) were compared. Thirty-two male OLETF rats were divided into four groups (Ex, Diet, Sed, Pre) . Fourteen LETO rats served as the normal controls. Therapy was conducted for 10 weeks from age 22 to 31 weeks. The Ex group was trained by voluntary exercise, and the Diet group had a restricted food intake resulting in the same BW as that of the Ex group. The Ex developed a significant increase in urinary albumin excretion compared to the Diet group, although significantly less than the Sed group. Blood pressure in the Ex group showed a tendency to be higher during therapy. BW and serum lipids were significantly reduced, and glucose intolerance was improved in both the Ex and Diet groups. There were no differences in the metabolic indices between the Ex and Diet groups. The Ex group showed a significantly heavier kidney weight and a tendency for enlargement of the glomerular area and volume. The protective effect of DN through improvement of the metabolic dis-order by exercise might be offset by exercise-induced renal loads. Control of exercise intensity and blood pressure appear to be important as well as the improvement of glucose intolerance and lipid metabolisms in exercise therapy to prevent an occurrence and development of DN.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teeth clenching on isokinetic knee extension force during repeated voluntary contractions. We assessed isokinetic muscle strength in association with teeth clenching during 100 consecutive knee extensions at 60 degrees per second (deg/s) using a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. In this study, 8 healthy male volunteers (28.4 ± 3.89 years) were asked to perform isokinetic contractions in an extended cycle of five contractions without teeth clenching followed by five contractions with the teeth clenching. The peak torque per body weight was statistically analyzed. In our results, the peak torque per body weight with teeth clenching were significantly greater than those without teeth clenching in the first 70 cycles; however, no significant differences were shown at 71-100 cycles. There was a significant negative correlation between the number of knee extensions and the difference in peak torque per body weight derived from with and without teeth clenching (r=-0.475, p<0.0001) . Our findings reveal that the effect of teeth clenching on the isokinetic muscle strength of knee extension is dependent on muscular fatigue, and that the improving effect of teeth clenching on isokinetic muscle strength declines with increasing muscular fatigue.