体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
50 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
  • 2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 1-78
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 菊永 茂司, 足立 稔, 吉川 和江, 山本 修
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 79-88
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was carried out to compare the nutrient intake, urinary excretion of mineral (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu ), and the ratios of creatinine (Cr), body mass index (BMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) to the amount of mineral in 24-hour urine between both the male university students with few exercise (non-exercisers) and male university distance runners. The propriety of ratios of Cr, BMI and BMR was also examined in order to estimate intake of mineral for the male university distance runners.
    There were no significant differences in the intakes of energy, protein and carbohydrate between the both groups of subjects, and those major nutrients were at reasonable levels for the both groups of subjects. On the other hand, neither the intake levels of VB6, Ca, Mg, and Cu in the non-exercisers, nor niacin, Mg and Cu in the male university distance runners reached the level of Recommended Dietary Allowance for the Japanese. The intakes of retinol, VB1, VB6 and Ca were higher in the male university distance runners than in the non-exercisers. The urinary excretion and excretion ratio to intake of Zn, excretion ratio of Na, ratios of Cr, BMI and BMR of Zn, and Cr ratio of Na were higher in the non-exercisers than those in the male university distance runners. So as to achieve the same levels of Cr ratios of Ca and Zn as the non-exercisers, the male university long distance runners should take larger amounts of those minerals than the non-exercisers. It was suggested that the ratio of BMR rather than that of Cr ratio to urinary excretion of mineral would be suitable for the estimation of a desirable intake level of mineral for the male university distance runners.
  • 永澤 健, 根本 勇, 中村 夏実, 岩竹 淳, 黒田 善雄
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 89-96
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は, クレアチン (Cr) ローディングがローイングパフォーマンスに及ぼす影響について検討することを目的とした.被検者は, 20名の国内トップレベルの男子学生ボート競技選手とし, ローイングエルゴメータにより, 実際の競技会をシミュレートした2000mローイングおよび最大努力の20秒ローイングを摂取前後に実施した.被検者を無作為にクレアチン (CRE) 群10名とプラセボ (PLA) 群10名に分け, 二重盲検法により1日20g (59×4/日) のCrあるいはプラセボを6日間摂取させた.その結果, 2000mローイングのタイムはCRE群において407.9±5.3秒から404.7±5.4秒へと有意な向上 (p<0.01) を示し, 一方, PLA群に有意な変化を認めなかった.最大努力の20秒ローイング時の発揮パワーは, Cr摂取によりに有意な変化を示さなかった.以上のことから, 高度にトレーニングされた男子ボート競技選手において, Crローディングは, 最大努力の20秒ローイングに効果がないものの, 2000mローイングのパフォーマンス向上に有効であることが示唆された.
  • 渡邊 裕之, 竹田 直樹, 鳥居 直美, 鳥居 俊
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 97-104
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the degenerative change of the cervical spine in American football (AF) players. The subjects were 27 collegiate AF players who had an annual radiological examination of the cervical spine. X-ray films of the lateral view were read by digital scanner and the anterior and posterior height of each spine (C 3-C 6) was measured. The subjects were divided into two groups based on experience of AF in high school (inexperienced and experienced) or the position played (lines and backs) .
    Although the anterior height did not change from the first grade to fourth grade, the posterior height of C 4, C 5 and C6 significantly increased (P <0.05) . The experienced group showed a faster increase in the rate of posterior height than the inexperienced group. Also, the backs group showed a faster increase in the rate of posterior height than the lines group. The increased posterior height, which sometimes includes bony spur, results in kyphotic change of cervical alignment and impingement of the cervical nerve root. The faster growth rate in experienced or backs groups suggests that higher mechanical stress to the cervical spine and younger start of AF caused degeneration.
  • ―臥位安静時の自律神経機能との関連―
    坂木 佳壽美
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 105-118
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    腹式呼吸は健康法として, またストレスを緩和させる方法としてその有効性が実証されつつあるが, ヒトには個体差がありストレスに対する反応の現われ方は様々である.
    そこで, 心拍変動 (RR間隔変動) から求める自律神経機能評価三指標1) %RR50, 2) CVRR, 3) E/Iratioの臥位における平均値を基準値と定義して, 三指標全てが平均値以下のG1 (交感神経活動亢進傾向群) , 平均値以上のG3 (副交感神経活動亢進傾向群) , 三指標の内いずれかが平均値以下, または平均値以上のG2 (中間群) の3群に分別し, 各群の自律神経機能と呼吸循環機能の特徴と腹式呼吸の有効性の違いを検討した.
    本研究の対象は女性20名 (48.4±5.5歳) で, 安静臥位 (20分) , 安静坐位 (20分) , 腹式呼吸 (20分: 呼気と吸気の時間の比が2: 1になるように指示した) , 回復 (30分) の計90分間のRR間隔変動 (100個/回) を経時的に測定し (計16回) 、前述の三指標の他にスペクトル解析による四指標 (HF, LF, LF/HF, HF/SUM) とHRを算出, それに対応して血圧値, f, PtcO2とPtcCO2を測定し, 以下のような結果を得た.
    1.安静時臥位において, 自律神経機能評価三指標 (%RR50, CVRR, E/Iratio) とHF (高周波成分) はそれぞれ高い正相関 (各P<0.01) を示し, 安静臥位では副交感神経活動が亢進状態にあった事が確認された.
    2.群別した3群の特徴と腹式呼吸の影響を以下に示した.
    1) G1は群内の個体差が大きく, 特に坐位より臥位において交感神経が緊張傾向を示した.しかし回復では坐位より副交感神経機能優位を示し, その状態が回復30分後まで持続した腹式呼吸の持続効果がみられた.呼吸循環機能は平均値と近似していた.
    2) G2は全測定を通してfと血圧は3群中で高値を示した.そして臥位のPtcO2値は平均値より低値, PtcCO2は高値, HRとfの高値傾向から, 呼吸が浅く速いことが判明した.しかし回復ではHRとfは坐位より低下し, 副交感神経機能は優位になり腹式呼吸の影響が大きく示された.
    3) G3は, 臥位において副交感神経が緊張傾向にあり, fと血圧は常時平均値より低く, 血圧とHRとの間に極めて強い関連性がみられた.回復では腹式呼吸後20分以降に副交感神経活動が亢進状態になっている事が認められた.そして他の2群と異なる点は, 回復時のPtcO2が腹式呼吸より高く, PtcCOvは逆に低値を示し, より深いG3の腹式呼吸の影響が血液ガスに現われていた.
    以上の測定結果から, 安静臥位における自律神経機能三指標の平均値を基準に分別した3群は, それぞれの自律神経機能ならびに呼吸循環機能の基礎レベル, またその両者の関連性にも特徴がみられ, 体位変換や腹式呼吸による反応も各群で異なり, 安静臥位における自律神経の緊張の違いが刺激応答にも反映している事が明示された.しかし, その個体差を前提にしても, 意識的腹式呼吸 (呼気と吸気の時間の比が2: 1) は, 呼吸循環機能を経時的に坐位より緩徐にさせ, 副交感神経活動を亢進状態に導き, その状態を持続させる事は可能であり, その効果が交感神経緊張傾向の人 (G1, G2) に大きく現われたことは特筆すべき事である.
    従って, 意識的腹式呼吸は日常生活で生じるストレスを, 自分自身で処理して行くストレス・マネジメントの一方法として活用できる事を確認した.
  • 井上 基浩, 片山 憲史, 北條 達也, 矢野 忠, 勝見 泰和
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 119-128
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effects of electrical acupuncture at the patellar tendon and electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve on patellar tendon blood flow were evaluated using laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats. In most subjects the blood flow in the patellar tendon rapidly decreased for 30 seconds after the start of local electrical acupuncture and then increased above baseline. Changes in blood flow did not necessarily follow changes in arterial blood pressure. Changes in tendon blood flow induced by electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve were similar to those induced by electrical acupuncture at the patellar tendon. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve. Phentolamine administration abolished the decreased patellar tendon blood flow seen after initiating electrical acupuncture at the patellar tendon, whereas atropine abolished the increased patellar tendon blood flow seen after terminating electrical acupuncture at the patellar tendon. Furthermore, atropine did not evoke increased blood flow following electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve. These results suggest that the decrease of blood flow seen after initiating electrical acupuncture may be controlled by sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves and the increase of blood flow following electrical acupuncture may be controlled by cholinergic vasodilator nerves.
  • 伊藤 穣, 鈴木 康弘, 蒲原 一之, 高松 薫
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 129-138
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/12/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is known that lactic anions and hydrogen ions (H+) produced during intense exercise are partly transported or diffused from muscle to blood resulting in the production of non-metabolic CO2 through the bicarbonate buffering system. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of the estimation of non-metabolic CO2 output using respiratory gas analysis during incremental exercise. Six healthy subjects underwent an incremental pedaling exercise test accompanied by respiratory gas and arterial blood sampling. The rate of non-metabolic CO2 output (VCO2-NM) was calculated by subtracting projected metabolic VCO2 from actual VCO2 after CO2 threshold (CT) . CT was determined using a modified V-Slope method. Bicarbonate (HCO3-), pH, CO2 partial pressure and lactate concentration were measured from arterial blood samples using automatic analyzers. The kinetics of VCO2-NM and HCO2- were compared throughout the exercise test. VCO2-NM was significantly correlated with HCO3-decrease after CT (r=0.976, p<0.001) and the kinetics of VCO2-NM and HCO3- decrease were similar during exercise. Furthermore, the amount of non-metabolic CO2 output (NM-CO2) calculated integrating VCO2-NM above CT was significantly correlated with the difference in HCO3-between CT and exhaustion (r=0.929, p<0.01) and with the difference in arterial blood pH between rest and exhaustion (r=0.863, p<0.05) . However, NM-CO2 was not significantly related to maximum ventilation (r=0.111, ns) . These results suggest that the estimation of non-metabolic CO2 output during incremental exercise proposed in the present study is reliable. It was also suggested that the primary factor which influenced nonmetabolic CO2 output during incremental exercise was the addition of H+ into blood and not hyperventilation.
  • 真家 英俊, 種田 行男, 北畠 義典, 江川 賢一
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 139-148
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hopping tempo on the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle at the landing phase during continuous hopping. The M 1 and M 2 components of stretch reflex of the soleus muscle and angular velocity of the ankle joint were recorded at the landing phase during hopping under four hopping tempos with frequencies of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 Hz. The electromyogram (EMG) activities in the soleus muscle during the landing and the jumping phases were separated under 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Hz conditions, but EMG's for both phases were overlapped under 2.5 Hz condition. Furthermore, at 1.0 and 1.5 Hz, a non-active EMG phase was observed between the landing and the jumping phases ; but this non-active phase disappeared at 2.0 Hz. The M 1 and M 2 components at 2.0 Hz showed significantly (p<0.01) larger values than those at 1.0 and 1.5 Hz. However, there was no significant difference observed between the components at 1.0 and 1.5 Hz. The M 2 component showed a significantly (p <0.01) smaller value than the M 1 component at 1.0 and 1.5 Hz ; but there was no significant difference at 2.0 Hz. The angular velocity of the ankle joint showed no significant difference under any of the conditions. These findings suggest that stretch reflex at landing during hopping may be inhibited at the motion pattern of the inactive phase between the landing and the jumping phases in EMG's. In addition, the stretch reflex is not only related to mechanical muscle stretching, but is also under the influence of the superior nerve center.
  • 金 俊東, 大島 利夫, 馬場 紫乃, 安田 俊広, 足立 和隆, 勝田 茂, 岡田 守彦, 久野 譜也
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 149-158
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to clarify the effect of exercise on the walking performance and the muscle volume in lower limbs, elderly athletes long continuing to be trained and untrained elderly were compared with regard to their muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. psoas major, thigh muscle and crus muscle and their walking ability. The subjects used consisted of thirty-six 80's-aged male and 70's-aged female elderly athletes and twenty-four elders having no regular exercise (control male group : CM, control female group : CF) . The elderly athletes were further divided into two groups in accordance with their results of Japan Fitness Test (high performance male group : HPM, low performance male group : LPM, high performance female group : HPF, low performance female group : LPF) . The walking performance was evaluated by analyzing their walking speed, stride-length and step rate during walking along a 15 m-strip of passage at normal and fast paces using videotaping. The muscle CSA was determined at m. psoas major, thigh muscle (extensors and flexors) and crus muscle (m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae) using MRI. As for the walking speed and stride-length at the normal pace, only HPM and HPF showed significantly higher values than CM and CF (male : p<0.05, female : p<0.01) . Meanwhile at the faster pace, HPF and LPF showed significantly higher values than CF in female (HPF : p<0.01, LPF : p<0.05) and in the case of males, only HPM have a higher value only of the walking speed than CM (p<0.05) . The CSA of m. psoas major in HPM and HPF significantly higher than that in CM and CF (all p<0.05), while in CSAs of knee extensor muscles and m. triceps surae, the statistical differences were not consistent among male and female groups. The results suggested that greater muscle mass of m. psoas major could influence higher walking speed in elderly people, and might be affected by regular exercise training.
  • 西平 賀昭
    2001 年 50 巻 1 号 p. 159-164
    発行日: 2001/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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