We studied the mechanism for slowing surface electromyography (EMG) during fatiguing contraction using superimposed M-wave analysis. Seven healthy male subjects exerted 60% maximum voluntary contraction of isometric abductions in the left first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) until exhaustion. Simultaneously with voluntary contractions, the ulnar nerve was electrically stimulated at supramaximal intensity, and volitional EMG and superimposed M-waves were obtained. We examined the behavior of muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) and median frequency (MDF) for both EMG, with the following results: 1) MFCV calculated from volitional EMG of FDI was about 6 m/s during 60% MVC. 2) The waveform of voluntary EMG detected from FDI slowed in all subjects during fatiguing contraction at 60% MVC, indicating fatigue had developed in the muscle. 3) As fatigue progressed, the waveform of the superimposed M-wave tended to decrease in amplitude and increase in duration. 4) As fatigue progressed, MDF and MFCV in volitional EMG decreased significantly (p<0.04) . The rate of change was larger in MDF than in MFCV (p<0.01) . 5) As fatigue progressed, MDF and MFCV in the superimposed M-wave decreased significantly (p<0.01) . The rate of change was larger in NIDF than in MFCV (p<0.05) . These results suggested that MFCV and other peripheral factors affected the slowing of volitional EMG. Elongation of the depolarization zone in muscle fiber is proposed as a peripheral factor.
Electromyographic activity of the shoulder muscle at 20 and 90°abduction (20 Abd, 90 Abd) during external rotation was investigated in seven healthy men with no history of injury or instability of the shoulder joint. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes inserted into the M. Supraspinatus, M. Infraspinatus and M. Teres minor, and with bipolar surface electrodes on the middle and posterior parts of M. Deltoid anti the upper and middle parts of M. Trapezius. To compare activity in different muscles, the integrated EMG (iEMG ) activity of each muscle was normalized. M. Infraspinatus and M. Teres minor showed significantly higher activity at both the 20 Abd and 90Abd compared with the middle and posterior parts of M. Deltoid and upper parts of M. Trapezius. M. Supraspinatus, the middle and posterior parts of M. Deltoid, and upper and middle parts of M. Trapezius all showed a difference in activity level between the two positions. These findings suggest that when M. Infraspinatus and M. Teres minor contribute to external rotation as a stabilizer and prime mover, consecutively, M. Supraspinatus, the middle and posterior parts of M. Deltoid, and upper and middle parts of M. Trapezius function according to the positions. Moreover, the activity of the upper and middle parts of M. Trapezius in 90Abd should influence stabilization, adduction and upward rotation of the scapula. Therefore, we conclude that the external rotation position is closely related to shoulder muscle activity and coordination.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term immobilization on the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The first dorsal interosseus (FDI) of 10 healthy male adults was immobilized for 1 week using casting tape. Atrophy of the muscle was estimated from a cross sectional view of magnetic resonance images (MRI) . To clarify the factors of a peripheral neuromuscular system contributing to the change in the MVC force, twitch force at rest was measured. The contribution of central factors was estimated from a voluntary activation (VA) index, which was obtained by the twitch interpolation method. The MRI showed no significant changes in the cross sectional area. The MVC force declined after immobilization (p<0.01), and recovered after 1 week from the termination of immobilization (p<0.01) . Both the twitch force at rest and the VA at MVC declined after immobilization (p<0.01), and recovered after 1 week (p<0.05) . The results indicate that the temporary decline of the MVC force was not accompanied by atrophy of the muscle. Furthermore the decline of the MVC was caused both by the deterioration of peripheral and central functions in the neuromuscular system. Possible factors in the peripheral and central neuromuscular systems affected by the immobilization were discussed.
The effect of low-frequency jump-training on bone was investigated in intact (Intact) and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Rats were divided into the following three groups for each experiments: sedentary (Intact-Sedentary and OVX-Sedentary), training once per week (Intact-1T and OVX-1T), and training three times per week (Intact-3T and OVX-3T) . The jump-training started at the age of 11 weeks for the Intact rats, and 12 weeks for the OVX rats, The jump-training protocol was 10 times day, 1 or 3 days week for 8 weeks, with a jumping-board height of 45 cm for the Intact experiment and 40 cm for the OVX experiment. After training, the fat-free dry weight, maximum breaking force, and bone morphometry in the right tibia were determined. The fat-free dry weight and maximum breaking force for the training groups in both experiments were significantly higher than those for the respective sedentary groups, though there were no significant differences between training groups. In the Intact experiment, the increases of cortical area at the tibia midlength in both training groups were especially remarkable. llowever in the OVX experiment, there were no significant differences between the sedentary and training groups in cross-sectional analysis. These results indicate that low-frequency jump-training had beneficial effects in term of increased bone mass and strength in the Intact rats and the OVX rats as well.
The effects of fencing uniforms (U) on thermoregulatory responses were analyzed in both practical field investigation (PFI) and laboratory experiment (LE) . In PFI, six fencers (college-aged) performed regular fencing practice wearing U and wearing a short-sleeved shirt and pants (T) in summer. Rectal temperature (Tr), chest skin temperature (Tch), mask temperature (Tmk), heart rate (HR) and sweat rate (SR) were measured during fencing practice. In LE, seven male college-aged subjects performed three sessions of 20-min cycling at light intensity (250 W/m2) in a room temperature maintained at 28 WBGT (wet bulb globe temperature) . Esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature (Tsk), mean body temperature (Tb), HR, and SR were measured during exercise wearing U and in a semi-nude condition (N) . In both PFI and LE, increases in Tch, Tsk, Tb, Tes, Tr and SR were significantly (p<0.001) greater when wearing U than when wearing T and N. In PFI, the maximal value of Tr correlated significantly with the maximal values of Tch (r=0.513, p<0.001) and SR (r=0.635, p<0.001) during practice wearing U and T. In LE, positive correlations between Tsk and Tes (r=0.797, p<0.001), and between Tb and SR (r=0.658, p<0.02) were found at the end of exercise wearing U and N. In PFI, although the Tsk decreased within a few minutes of a decrease in Tmk, a significant relationship between the decrease in Tmk and Tsk or Tr was not observed during fencing practice. These results demonstrate that when wearing U, a higher skin temperature induces core temperature elevation, and higher skin and core temperatures are associated with increases in SR and HR during exercise in a hot environment. Thus, wearing light clothing during exercise, and taking off the fencing jacket and mask during rest periods would be recommended to reduce the heat stress during fencing practice in hot environments.
The squat is used for strength training of the hip and knee joint muscles. The weight to be lifted is important for multi-joint movement like a squat, because weight differences are thought to directly affect joint load. The purpose of this study is to compare the activity of eight muscles crossing the ankle, knee and hip joints during three kinds of squats with different loads (60%, 75% and 90% of 1RM) . Eight male athletes performed squats with three different loads. Variables such as net torque, power and work about the joint were calculated only during the ascending phase of each squat. At the same time, surface electrodes was placed over the eight lower extremity muscles, and %iEMG was also calculated during the ascending phase of each squat. Elector spinae and Biceps femoris muscle activity of 90% was significantly greater than at 60%. Gluteus maximus muscle activity at 90% was significantly of 75% and 60%. Mean torque and work on the hip joint increased significantly as load increased from 60% and 75% to 90%. For the knee, mean torque increased significantly from 60% to 90%. These results that a heavy weight like 90% of 1RM used in squat exercise increases the load on the hip joint extensor muscles.
Penetration of different kinds of peptides or collagen peptide through the intestinal membrane was studied in two experiments using anin vitrorat everted intestine penetration model. In Study 1, twelve 11-wk-old rats (Wistar strain) were randomly divided into two groups and penetration of whey peptide (n=6) and soy peptide (n=6) through the intestinal membrane was compared. In Study 2, fourteen 11-wk-old rats (Wistar strain) were divided into a control group (n=7) and a training group (treadmill running at a speed of 20-35 m/min for 15 mm day, 5 days wk for 4 wk n=7), and penetration of collagen peptide through the intestinal membrane was investigated in the two groups. In Study 1, the quantity of whey peptide that penetrated through the intestinal membrane was significantly greater than that of soy peptide (P<0.01) . In Study 2, body weight was significantly lower in the training group than in the control group except during 12 and 12.5 wk of age (13.5 wk ; P<0.01, others; P<0.05) . The weights of heart, kidney, and spleen were significantly increased, and the weight of fat was significantly decreased in the training group compared to the control group (P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively) . In both groups, a portion of collagen peptide penetrated through the intestinal membrane; but there was no significant difference in quantity between the two groups. In conclusion, the inhibition of weight gain in the training group was possibly caused by decreased feeding from lack of appetite with enforced exercise. These findings suggest that whey peptide penetrated through the intestinal membrane in greater quantities than soy peptide, and collagen peptide is not affected by enforced exercise.
Daily energy expenditure has been measured by the physical activity recording and/or the questionnaire method. Recently, the accelerometer or pedometer is used to measure daily energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine validity of the pedometer with accelerometer and to compare the daily physical activity between young and older Japanese. To examine validity of the pedometer, 10 young subjects worn the pedometer (Lifecorder) on the waist and then performed the walking test. Energy expenditure was measured by the expired gas analysis during the test. Fourtythree young and 54 older subjects worn the Lifecorder on the waist during free-living condition for 14 days. The intensity of Lifecorder had a high correlation with the physical activity intensity (METs) (r=0.958, P<0.001) . In the free-living condition, daily energy expenditure was 2171±305 kcal in young and 1617±196kcal in older (P<0.001) . Total step in young was significantly higher than older (young: 9490±2359 steps ; older: 6071±2804 steps, P<0.001) . There was no significant difference in the duration of physical activities at the Lifecorder intensity 1 such as desk working, watching TV sitting on a sofa and driving a car. However, the duration more than the intensity 2 corresponding to 2.2 METs in young subjects was longer than that in older (P<0.001) . We concluded that in older subjects, not only amounts of daily energy expenditure but also intensities of daily living were lower compared to the young subjects.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether isometric resistance exercise (IRE) can attenuate musculoskeletal atrophy during unloading and accelerate its recovery during reloading. Twenty-six female Fischer 344 rats, aged 16 weeks, had their hindlimbs suspended for 3 weeks (unloading) ; 12 of these rats were allowed subsequent cage activity (reloading) for 3 weeks with or without IRE. IRE (stationary support on a cylindrical grid inclined 60 or 80 degrees) was done for 30 min/day, 6 days/week, with an additional load of 30% or 50% body mass attached to the tail during the unloading and reloading periods. The tibial bone and hindlimb skeletal muscles from four experimental and two age-matched control groups were evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical testing, and muscle mass measurement. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the whole tibia and in 7 regions divided equally along the long axis of the epiphysis from proximal (R1) to distal (R7) . After unloading, fat-free dry mass (FFDM), bone mineral content (BMC), and BMD of the whole tibia decreased by 8%, 10%, and 6%, respectively. FFDM and BMC, but not BMD, returned to the levels of age-matched controls during reloading. Unloading-induced decreases in BMD were observed in the regions from the proximal epiphysis to the diaphysis (R1 to R4) and the distal epiphysis (R7) . The rate of decrease in BMD was regionally specific and was particularly pronounced (12%) in the most proximal region (R1) . These findings indicate regional variations in responses of BMD to skeletal unloading. The BMD in R2 to R4 remained less than that in age-matched control after reloading. No significant changes were observed in maximum breaking load, energy, and deformation after unloading and reloading. Hindlimb-unloading induced loss of mass in the soleus (38%), plantaris (14%), gastrocnemius (25%), tibialis anterior (8%), extensor digitorum longus ( 8%), and rectos lemons (17%) muscles, but the mass of muscles, except for the soleus muscle, recovered during reloading. IRE ameliorated the loss of mass in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles during unloading but did not promote the recovery of mass in any muscles during reloading. Moreover, IRE showed no effect on bone responses after unloading and reloading. This lack of beneficial effects of IRE on osteopenia may be due, in part, to insufficient exerciseinduced load. We concluded that 1) regional analysis of BMD can be used to assess local bone metabolism, 2) the response of BMD to altered loading conditions does not necessarily depend on the response of muscle mass, 3) recovery from osteopenia progresses more slowly than that from sarcopenia, and a longer time than the unloading period is required to restore BMD. Further studies are needed to develop more effective countermeasures against osteopenia and sarcopenia.