体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
53 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
  • 2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 1-81
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 島田 美恵子, 西牟田 守, 児玉 直子, 吉武 裕
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 83-92
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reappearance of the post-absorptive resting metabolic rate (PARM) during a prescribed diet. The subjects were 10 sedentary female college students (20.1±0.7yrs) . Thyroid function was judged in all of them to be within a normal range. Subjects stayed in a metabolic ward at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition for 18 days. The post-absorptive resting metabolic rate was measured 4 times during the experimental period. Moreover, blood was collected five times, and general health care including the measurement of thyroxin by blood biochemical examination was carried out. As for the actual metabolic measurements, a high reappearance was confirmed by the intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV) of the post-absorptive resting metabolic rate (3.5±1.8%) and the inter-individual CV (7.2%) . The smallest CV was the standard value of PARM/body surface area, followed by PARM/body weight, PARM/LBM, and PARM/urine creatinine. On the other hand, weight (50.8±4.9 vs 50.3±4.6 kg ; p<0.01), hemoglobin concentration (13.7 ± 0.5 vs 12.8±0.5g/dl ; p<0.05), serum total cholesterol level (194±41 vs 175 ± 37 mg/dl ; p<0.05) and post-absorptive resting oxygen uptake (0.149±0.01 vs 0.142±0.011/min ; p<0.01) decreased significantly during the experiment. According to the Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) (1999), basal metabolic rate (BMR) was calculated at 1, 210 kcal/day or 23.6 kcal/kg body weight/day for women within the 18-29 year age group. But the results (the mean of all measurements) of this research suggested that this value was 1, 033 ± 79 kcal/day, or 20.7 ± 2.0 kcal/kg body weight/day based on the method of Weir ; and was approximately 10% lower than RDAs. Future investigation is required to explain the reasons for the difference in BMR between this study and that of previous ones.
  • 沢井 史穂, 実松 寛之, 金久 博昭, 角田 直也, 福永 哲夫
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 93-105
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    若年男女12名を対象として, 携帯型表面筋電計を用い, 日常生活の基本動作である姿勢保持・姿勢変換・体重移動動作計27種類について身体8部位から筋電図を導出し, 各動作における筋ごとの活動水準を明らかにした.筋活動水準は, 各動作で導出された筋電図の時間当たりの平均積分値 (mEMG) を各筋の等尺性筋活動によるMVC発揮時の筋電図積分値で正規化して評価した.その結果, 以下の知見が得られた.
    1.対象動作における時間当たりの平均活動水準は, ヒラメ筋において一部40%MVCを越える動作があったものの, 総じて低く, 20~30%MVC程度だった.
    2.動作間で各筋の活動水準を比較すると, 速い速度での‘階段昇り・降り’及び‘坂の上り・下り’と‘ジョギング’が総じてどの筋でも相対的に高い活動水準を示し, 坂や階段を急いで上る (昇る) と, 下肢の筋には自然歩行時の2~3倍の負担がかかることが判明した.
    3.体幹の筋では‘立ち座り’, 脊柱起立筋と大腿直筋では‘中腰’と‘立ちしゃがみ’の活動水準も相対的に高かった.また, 腹直筋と大腿直筋は, 階段と坂の上り下り動作において昇り (上り) より降り (下り) 動作の方が筋の活動水準が高いという特徴が認められた.
    4.以上の結果は男女に共通するものであったが, 筋活動水準の平均値は多くの動作で女性の方が有意に高く, 同じ動作を行ったときの筋への負荷は女性の方が相対的に大きいと考えられた.
    5.本研究の結果から, 日常生活の中での速い体重移動動作, 特に勾配のある路面での移動動作は, 下肢筋群の筋機能の維持・向上に有効な運動刺激となり得るのではないかと推察された.
  • 刈谷 文彦, 北川 淳, 小林 啓三, 成澤 三雄, 中原 凱文
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 107-114
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged voluntary running training on bone mass in the tiba of growing male SD rats. At 5 weeks old, the rats were divided into 4 groups : group 15 VE (n=7) exercised voluntarily on a running wheel for 10 weeks from 5- to 15-weeks old ; group 35 VE (n=7) exercised voluntarily on a running wheel for 30 weeks from 5- to 35-weeks old ; in groups 15SC (n=6) and 35 SC (n=5), rats were housed individually in normal plastic cages for the same periods as groups 15 VE and 35 VE, respectively. At the end of each experimental period, the right tibia from each rat was used for bone- mass analysis using peripheral quantitative cumputed tomography (pQCT) . The evaluated portions were the proximal methaphysis and the diaphysis, with total, cortical, and trabecular data from these portions being obtained as volumetric bone mineral content (vBMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) . The results indicated that 1) although voluntary running distance tended to decline during the later period (1635 wk old) in 35 VE rats, some mean values obtained for bone mass parameters using pQCT were significant greater in 35 VE than in 35SC ; 2) the mean values from those parameters in 15 VE were not significantly different from those in 15 SC. These results suggest that the continuation of voluntary exercise may be important for bone- mass enhancement in rat tibia.
  • 北畠 義典, 種田 行男, 江川 賢一, 真家 英俊, 福永 哲夫, 鈴木 洋児, 山本 高司
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 115-121
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は20日間のBRによる身体の不活動が抗重力筋のひとつであるヒラメ筋脊髄運動神経プールの興奮性におよぼす影響を検討することである.被検者は20日間ベッドの上で生活するBR群8名 (年齢24.3±6.5歳, 身長171.5±5.2cm, 体重65.8±15.5kg) と普段どおりの日常生活をおくる対照群10名 (年齢23.9±2.8歳, 身長172.5±3.5cm, 体重66.4±6.1kg) であった.測定中の姿勢は仰臥位とし, 脊髄運動神経の興奮性の指標はH反射法を用いて, 抗重力筋であるヒラメ筋からH反射およびM反応を記録した.そしてその記録を用いて動員曲線を作成し, その中からHslp/Mslpを算出した.信頼性及び妥当性の高いデータを得るために特に以下の点に配慮した. (1) BR期間中を通して十分な管理の基で質の高いBR環境を保持した. (2) ヒラメ筋脊髄運動神経の興奮性に影響をおよぼす被検筋および拮抗筋の活動を除去し, 安定した測定条件を整えた. (3) 閉塞現象の影響を受けにくい指標であるHslp/Mslpを用いた. (4) 対照群を設けてBRの影響を両群間で比較検討した.そして, 以下に述べる結果が得られた.
    1) BR群ではBRの前値に比べて後値でHslp/Mslpが有意 (P<0.05) に高値を示したが, 対照群では観察期間前後でHslp/Mslpに有意な差は認められなかった.
    2) BRおよび観察期間の前値においてHslp/Mslpは群間に有意な差は認められなかったが, 後値においてはBR群が対照群に比べて有意 (P<0.05) に高値を示した.
    以上の結果から20日間のBRによる身体不活動はヒラメ筋脊髄運動神経の興奮性を増大させることが明らかとなった.
  • 高野 純平, 藤井 範久, 向井 直樹, 劉 莉荊, 林 和彦, 白崎 芳夫, 斉藤 慎一, 徳山 薫平
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 123-130
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Side to side difference in tennis players' mid-radius and cross-sectional study on mid-tibia of jumpers and sedentary controls suggest that the improvement of mechanical properties of cortical bone in response to long-term exercise is related to geometric adaptation and not to volumetric bone mineral density. In the present study, geometric and mechanical properties of right tibia were estimated along 64 directions centering center of gravity of the bone on cross-sectional peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) images. The tibias of 17 jumpers (7 females, 10 males) and 15 controls (8 females, 7males), aged 18-23, were scanned at mid site using pQCT. Periosteal and endocortical radius were larger, cortical thickness was thicker, and mechanical properties (moment of inertia of area and strength strain index) were greater in jumpers compared to those of controls. The differences in cortical thickness between the two groups were dependent on direction of measurement. Defined a direction from tibia's center of gravity to fibula's as 0°, difference in the cortical thickness between jumpers and controls was the greatest at around 240°. Along this direction, differences in mechanical properties were also the most significant, suggesting that the site-specific adaptation of bone to long-term exercise is due to geographical relation of bone to muscle.
  • 大野 政人, 野坂 和則
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 131-139
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    運動誘発性筋痙攣の要因として, 筋疲労や脱水などが挙げられているが, その発現メカニズムの詳細は明らかでない.そこで本研究では, 筋痙攣の生じやすさを調べる「筋痙攣テスト」を考案し, その妥当性について検証すると共に, それらを用いて, 筋痙攣に対する筋疲労および脱水の影響を明らかにする事を目的とした.20名に対して筋痙攣テストを行った結果, 普段, 筋痙攣が起こりやすい全員に筋痙攣が誘発され, 筋痙攣の経験がほとんど無い者には誘発されなかった.よって, 筋痙攣テストにより筋痙攣の起こりやすさをスクリーニングできると考えられる.100回の膝関節屈曲運動後に, 主働筋である運動肢のハムストリングスで筋痙攣は誘発されにくくなり, 運動肢の足底の筋群では筋痙攣が生じやすくなった.従って, 運動によって筋痙攣の誘発率は高まるが, 筋疲労がその要因である可能性は低いと考えられる.また, 体重の3%に相当する脱水によって, 足底の筋群で筋痙攣が生じやすくなった.脱水が筋痙攣の要因である可能性は高いと考えられるが, その詳細なメカニズムは今後の検討課題である.
  • 金田 晃一, 木村 文律, 秋本 崇之, 河野 一郎
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 141-147
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity. Nine healthy males (mean age : 21.7±0.5 years, mean height : 173.4±2.2 cm) had electrodes placed on their left leg muscles (Tibialis Anterior ; TA, Medial Gastrocnemius ; MG, Soleus ; SOL, Rectus Femoris ; RF, and Biceps Femoris ; BF), and their muscle activity was measured during various exercises. The subjects performed six types of exercise such as the forward walk, backward walk, squat, calf raise, leg range, and one leg wave, both in the water (waist level) and on land. These exercises were categorized as 3 types of leg movement according to direction ; horizontal, vertical, and mixed movement.
    In the forward walk and backward walk, categorized as horizontal movements, the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) significantly increased during underwater exercise compared with on land. In the squat, as a vertical movement, the IEMG showed a similar change under both conditions. In the calf raise, as a vertical movement, and leg range and one leg wave, as mixed movements, the IEMG significantly decreased during underwater exercise compared with on land. These results suggest that leg muscle activity during underwater exercise is different based on the movement direction of the legs. In a word, it was apparent that movement in a horizontal direction underwater provides greater activity for leg muscles than on land; but movement in a vertical and/or mixed direction underwater provides less activity for leg muscles than on land. In prescribing an exercise program, it may be helpful to understand the differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity.
  • 相澤 勝治, 中堀 千香子, 秋本 崇之, 木村 文律, 林 貢一郎, 河野 一郎, 目崎 登
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 149-156
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Objective] The aim of this investigation was to evaluate salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) responses during a competitive period among female football players.
    [Methods] Subjects were college female football players (n=9) . Saliva and blood samples were collected at 18 : 00 (6 : 00 pm) and the profile of mood state (POMS) was recorded during a period of normal training (Pre), 3 days of competition (Competition), and a recovery period (Post) . Levels of salivary DHEA, cortisol, and serum creatin kinase (CK), urea nitorogen (UN), were determined.
    [Results] The levels of salivary DHEA significantly increased during competition (2 nd days) compared with Pre (p<0.05), and significantly decreased after competition compared with Pre (p<0.05) . The levels of salivary cortisol significantly increased during the competition (2 nd and 3 rd days) compared with Pre (p<0.05) . Whereas it decreased after competition compared with Pre. The levels of serum CK significantly increased during the competition (2 nd days) compared with Pre (p<0.05) . The levels of serum UN did not change during the study. The fatigue score of POMS significantly increased during competition (2 nd days) compared with Pre (p<0.05) .
    [Conclusion] These data suggest that DHEA could be a useful endocrinological indicator for evaluating training status in female athletes.
  • 志賀 充, 尾縣 貢
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 157-166
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は走幅跳の踏切中に発揮される下肢関節トルクと脚動作及び等速性脚筋力の関連を検討するものであった.大学陸上競技部に所属する男子競技者12名を被験者に走幅跳の全助走跳躍を行なわせ, 踏切中の地面反力と動作解析から下肢のキネマティクス, キネティクスデータを算出した.また, 等速性筋力測定装置により膝関節, 股関節の等速性脚筋力を測定した.
    主な結果は以下の通りである.
    1.踏切足接地時に踏切脚の膝関節角速度を小さくすることで, 踏切中の速度減少率を抑えることが可能であると推察される.
    2.股関節は踏切後半局面に伸展するものの, 屈曲筋群の活動により機能的にはブレーキング効果が生じ, 記録に影響を与えると推察される.
    3.踏切後半局面において振り上げ脚股関節伸展が大きな伸展トルクを発揮する者ほど跳躍角が小さくなることが示唆された.
    4.膝関節伸展筋力が高い者ほど, 踏切中間の踏切脚膝関節角度を大きく保つ跳躍が可能であると考えられた.また, 踏切中間で踏切脚の膝関節角度が大きく保たれる場合, 踏切後半局面で踏切脚膝関節伸展トルクが小さくなることが考えられた.
    5.股関節伸展筋力が高い者ほど, 中間から後半局面において屈曲トルクを示した.
    走幅跳の踏切においては, 踏切脚の膝及び股関節伸展筋力を高めること, また踏切脚の股関節トルクが記録に影響すること, 踏切後半局面で振り上げ脚股関節伸展トルクが大きい者は跳躍角が小さいことが考えられた.
  • 谷埜 予士次, 田邉 智, 大工谷 新一, 伊藤 章
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 167-181
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to give more effective instruction for running in sports medicine, the mechanical stresses in the knee joint during running at various speeds and step lengths were investigated.
    The subjects were five male sprinters. Running conditions were as follows : 1) running at four speeds (2.5 m/s, 4.5 m/s, 6.5 m/s and maximum running speed) with natural step lengths, 2) run-ning with three different step lengths (1.0 m, 1.5m and preferred step length) at 4.5 m/s running speed, and 3) running at maximum speed using four different step lengths (1.0 m, 1.5m 2.5m and preferred step length) . Running movements were recorded using a high speed video camera. And ground reaction forces were also measured by a force platform. The compressive force and shear force in the tibiofemoral joint were computed from the results of two dimensional motion analysis. That is, the external force caused by ground reaction forces, the internal force produced by the mus-cle to develop joint torque and total force (external+internal force) were computed for both com-pressive and shear forces.
    The total compressive force that affects the meniscus and articular cartilage in the tibiofemoral joint depended on the magnitude of internal force. The total compressive force increased with running speed and step length. Therefore, caution should be employed in changing running speed and step length for regulating the magnitude of total compressive force on the tibiofemoral joint. On the other hand, the total shear force that caused traction stress in the posterior cruciate ligament depended on the magnitude of external force. The posterior shear force was generated during the foot contact period, and increased with step length. As for total shear force in the tibiofemoral joint, care must be taken to regulate step length.
  • 中谷 敏昭, 上 英俊
    2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 183-188
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 2004 年 53 巻 1 号 p. 189-194
    発行日: 2004/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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