In the present research, first we evaluated the association between urban area size and commuting modes with physical activity among working people. Then we investigated the longitudinal effects of urban area size and commuting modes on increased physical activity due to health guidance intervention. The subjects were 401 male employees (aged 46.3±7.8) of A corporation, and were split into two groups, metropolitan area group (N=235) and local area group (N=166), based on the population density of place of work. IPAQ-E was used for evaluation of walking environments, and physical activity was assessed using pedometers. The intervention consisted of an exercise-focused health guidance over the course of one year. The cross-sectional study admitted that in comparison with the local area group the metropolitan area group had more than physical activity (p<0.01). Not only the size of urban area but commuting modes were significantly related to the level of daily physical activity (p<0.001). In longitudinal study, regarding the effects of the intervention for the physical activity, the study showed the possibility that urban area size was not directly effective but traffic safety in residential area (p<0.05) and willingness to take a walk (p<0.01) were effective. The cross-sectional study suggested that the size of the urban area and commuting modes had independently an effect on the physical activity of working people. The longitudinal study, on the other hand, suggested that the size of the urban area and commuting modes may not any direct influence on the effects of physical activity intervention.
Our previous study revealed that a 14-week indirect lifestyle intervention (LSI) implemented through wives had significant effects on weight loss among obese men. The purpose of the current study was to compare long-term maintenance of body weight after LSI between direct (DI) and indirect (II) intervention groups. Of participants in the previous intervention study, 15 men in the DI group and 24 married couples in the II group consented to a 2-year follow-up measurement session. Body weight, metabolic syndrome (MS) components, daily energy intake, and activity energy expenditure were measured pre- and post-LSI and at the follow-up. Participation rate in the 2-year follow-up tended to be higher in the II group (66.7%) than in the DI group (44.1%). Changes in body weight during the 2-year period in the DI and II groups were 1.4 ± 2.9 kg (P = 0.09) and 1.0 ± 3.4 kg (P = 0.15), respectively. There were no differences in the measurements or their changes between the two groups at the 2-year follow-up; however, we did find a significant correlation in the change in energy intake (r = 0.68, P < 0.01) between wives and husbands. While we found no significant difference in body weight maintenance between the DI and II groups, our study showed that many husbands in the II group succeeded in long-term maintenance of their weight loss, indicating that an indirect LSI through wives can affect the long-term maintenance of body weight among obese men.
Evaluation of the physical fitness level of children and adolescents must include consideration of individual growth rates. This study evaluates the relationship between height and physical fitness in a large sample of 6-17 yr students. Physical fitness test scores were calculated for every 1 cm height group and used to generate quadratic regression equations. Physical fitness data reported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT) were compared with estimated values obtained using our regression equations. The differences between the values reported by MEXT and our estimated values were very small. Comparison of physical fitness T-scores calculated based on school grade averages with T-scores based on means calculated using our regression equations indicated that shorter height students had lower T-scores if school grade averages were used for the calculation. In conclusion, in elementary and junior high school students, it is important to evaluate physical fitness level relative to individual physical growth.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of pre-motion time (PMT), pre-motion silent period (PMSP), and switching silent period (SSP) before and after the training using balance-mat. Twenty healthy people aged 21-36 years old (average 26.5 years old) were subjected to a series of experiment. These were randomly divided into two groups (10 subjects each), control and balance-mat group. Activities of M. Soleus and M. Tibialis anterior were recorded by electromyogram (EMG) for the duration subjects were tried to raise their both heels as quick respond to a flashing lamp. Intervention consisted of 3minutes standing on the floor in control group, and 3 minutes standing on the balance-mat in balance-mat group. Then EMG was recorded as the same manner after the intervention in each group. There was no statistical difference of duration of PMSP and SSP between the two groups before intervention. On the other hand, those in balance-mat group were significantly shorter than those in control group after intervention. In addition, in balance-mat group, duration of PMSP and SSP after intervention were significantly shorter than that before intervention. There was no statistical difference of PMT between before and after the intervention. These results suggested balance-mat training was effective for shorten the duration of SSP and PMSP, that lead to control the posture function.
Previous studies showed associations of sedentary behavior with cardiovascular risks, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have focused on Japanese workers. This study examined the joint association of television viewing time (TV) and walking time (WT) with overweight/obesity among Japanese municipal office workers. A cross-sectional survey collected height, weight, and time spent in TV and WT from 2,175 Japanese workers, aged 22-62 years-old, by self-administered questionnaire. Participants were classified into four categories according to TV (dichotomized into long (>2 hours/day) and short (≤2 hours/day) by the median) and WT (dichotomized into long (≥30 minutes/day) and short (<30 minutes/day) by 30 minutes/day). Odds ratios (OR) for overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25kg/m2) were calculated according to the four TV/WT categories, adjusted for potential confounders. Overweight/obesity accounted for 30.5% of men and 15.3% of women. Among men, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight/obesity were 1.14 (0.76, 1.70) for long TV/long WT, 1.13 (0.77, 1.65) for short TV/short WT, and 0.97 (0.67, 1.42) for short TV/long WT, compared with the reference category (long TV/short WT). Among women, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 0.70 (0.39, 1.13) for long TV/long WT, 0.55 (0.33, 0.94) for short TV/short WT, and 0.54 (0.33, 0.89) for short TV/long WT. Spending a long time watching television was associated with a higher risk of being obese in Japanese female municipal office workers, independent of WT. Further studies using prospective designs are warranted to develop an effective weight control program for Japanese workers.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in 29 Japanese elite male athletes (age 25.6±3.7y, height 175.6±7.0cm, body weight 74.7±12.8kg, fat-free mass (FFM) 64.9±9.3kg). The subjects were classified into three groups according to their FFM. There was a significant difference in BMR/FFM between S-group (less than 0.5SD of average FFM) and L-group (more than 0.5SD). The parcentage of RM to body weight in S-group was significantly higher than in L-group. In conclusion, high basal metabolic rate/fat-free mass ratio in Japanese elite male athletes can be attributed to body composition.
Pedometers are frequently used to measure habitual physical activity (PA). However, non-locomotive PA may constitute a substantial part of total PA in workers engaged in certain occupations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contribution of non-locomotive PA to total habitual PA in Japanese workers. Subjects were 177 Japanese males and females. Occupations of the subjects were preschool (kindergarten and nursery school) teachers, salespersons, drivers, licensed cooks, security guards, housewives, garbage collectors and office workers. Light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and step counts were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (Active style Pro HJA-350IT, Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd), which allowed for an accurate discrimination between locomotive and non-locomotive PA. The non-locomotive component of MVPA predominated in licensed cooks and garbage collectors, while security guards displayed more locomotive MVPA. The non-locomotive component of light PA predominated in preschool teachers, salespersons, licensed cooks and housewives, while security guards displayed more locomotive light PA. Relative contributions of non-locomotive PA were different among occupations. The present study suggests that locomotor measurements alone might substantially underestimate habitual PA in workers engaged in certain occupations (e.g., licensed cooks and garbage collectors).
The purpose of this study was to determine the muscle activity during cutting in female basketball player. Eight female basketball players participated in this study. Each subject was instructed to do two steps of approach run, and change direction to the right laterally. Cutting motion is divided two into a phase: knee joint flexion phase and extension phase. Bipolar surface EMG electrodes, spaced 30 mm apart and oriented parallel to the muscle fascicles were secured over the muscle bellies of the Vastus Medialis (VM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF), and Semimembrasosus (SM) musculature. EMG recordings were employed to measure the ratio of activation between the medial-to-lateral Hamstring and Quadriceps, and Hamstring and Quadriceps. All the subject had 10-15 degrees knee angle during cutting. In flexion phase, Quadriceps acted more significantly than Hamstring (p<0.05). Moreover, VM activity acted larger than VL, and BF activity acted larger than SM in each phases (p<0.05) All the subject reveal a similar pattern: Quadriceps act largely in flexion phase, which may increase anterior tibial shear forces, strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. Moreover, medial muscle activity acted larger than lateral muscle in Quadriceps, and lateral muscle activity acted larger than medial muscle in Hamstring in each phase. All the subject had 10-15 degree knee angle during cutting, therefore, a variation in lateral and medial muscle may trigger knee valgus.