The purpose of this study is to considerate on construction of teaching materials in the field of games, especially in elementary physical education. In this paper, the main problem is to present the idea of “explicit exaggeration” and to explain its meaning and method in invasion games through analyzing cases on construction of teaching material as task-game. Construction of teaching materials means to modify full-game that played by adults with all the inherent techniques and tactics. “Representation” and “Exaggeration” are viewpoints of game modification in the theory of TGFU (Teaching Games for Understanding). “Representation” is the method of making games that maintains most of the tactical complexity of full games but reduces the problems posed by the technical and physical limitations of children. “ Exaggeration” is game modification that intend to exaggerate the tactical problem in games. Two examples of instruction used modified invasion game as teaching material (basketball and soccer) were investigated with game analyses. In these cases of modification, setting specific area that is important for shooting, devising form of goal and compound using of both ways were explained as concrete methods for modification. These methods of explicit exagger ation involve pedagogical functions as follows. a) facilitating intentional play for making use of space. b) amplifying selective play based on decision-ma king. These functions of modification are related to common appreciation of game and cooperative play between teammates. Accordi ngly, the idea of “explicit exaggeration” is able to be indicated as “the strategy that additional rules are adopted as game modification in order to facilitate intentional and selective play based on decision-making (tactical awareness) in games”.
Purpose: This study examined the coordin ated movement of SAKA-AGARI (forward upward circling on the horizontal bar) by analyses of both ground reaction forces and films made with high speed cinematography. Methods: The reaction forces of the sustaining leg were compared between three elementary school children who perform SAKA-AGARI successfully and 6 elementary school children who were unable to perform SAKA-AGARI even though they were judged to have sufficient muscle strength to achieve SAKA-AGARI. Results: The results were summarized as follows.1) Both legs of the SAKA-AGARI performer seemed to put together until the upward swinging leg parting from the floor.2) After the upward swinging leg parted from the floor, reaction forces of the sustaining leg pointed vertically and to the front. The direction of the reaction force in the successful SAKA-AGARI changed to the direction of the bar.3) Maximal speed at which the upper part of the body of the SAKA-AGARI performer leaned back was significantly faster when SAKA-AGARI was performed successfully, and this was a significant factor in explaining whether the SAKA-AGARI performance would succeed or not.4) Maximal speed at which the upper part of the body of the SAKA-AGARI performer leaned back correlated with the impulse of forward reaction forces when SAKA-AGARI performance was successful.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the b reathing characteristics of backstroke swimming and to establish some teaching methods of the backstroke. An experiment was conducted to examine the relationship between breathing pattern and stroke motion by investigating nasal pressure while swimming and videotaping the stroke motion in the water. Thus, nasal pressure was measured while swimming the backstroke using an air-pressure transducer and the stroke motion was filmed using a digital video camera, investigating the breathing pattern, stroke mechanics, and their relationship. The results are as follows: 1) Two types of breathing in the backstroke were observed: 1 stroke cycle 1 breath (Type A) and 1 stroke cycle 2 breathes (Type B) Irregular breathing type was observed in the inexperien c ed (Type C). The incidence of Type B was 37.5% for trained swimmers and 4 0.0% for the experienced. There were diverse breathing patterns in the inexperienced. 2) The exhalation rate of the experienced was significantly smaller than that of the trained in fast-paced swimming and in slow-paced swimming (p<0.05). There was no significan t difference with the inexperienced. The exhalation rate of the trained in slow-paced s wimming was significantly longer than that in fast-paced swimming (p<0.05). 3) The time for the maximum exhalation in terms of nasal pressure was the moment that one hand entered the water for Type A and the moment that one hand began to stroke for Type B. The nasal pressure appeared greater in the fast-paced swimming of the trained (3.0+1.2 cmH 2 0)compared to the slow-paced swimming of the trained (2.3+0.8 c H20) and the untrain e d (2.2±1.1 c mH20). There was a significant difference between fast-paced swimming and slow-p a ced swimming of the trained (p<0.05). 4) The nasal pressure of the trained was greater in fast-paced swimming (3.2±1.4cmH20,2.5±0.7cmH20) than in slow-paced swimming (2.5±0.9 cmH20,1.9±0.4 cmH20) for both Type A and Type B; a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the two kinds of pace in all breathing types. The nasal pressure of the experienced appeared slightly greater in Type A (2.7±1.0 cmH20) than in Type B (1.4±0.2 cmH20) and Type C (1.3±0.7 cmH20). There was v ery little difference between Type B and Type C. The above findings showed that when teach ing the backstroke one needs to fully understand what type of breathing, Type A or Type B, the swimmer excels at and to teach in line with the characteristics of individual breathing patterns.
There are two approaches to the studying of the relationship between dance movements and emotions: one that studies what impression is perceived by a person who sees a movement (Matsumoto.1984), and the other that studies so-called “Bodily Sensations,” or emotional perceptions which a dancer perceives while he or she is dancing. (Shiba 1996,1997a,1997b,1998,2003b) We assumed that investigating the interrelated process of the refinement of dance technique and emotional perceptions in dance would lead to finding an effective way of teaching dance. And we aimed to come up with a hypothetical model of correlation between the level of improvement in dance technique and the level of emotional perceptions. The results are as follows: 1. Emotional perceptions vary with improvement of dance technique. 2. Students also improve in dance technique as they rehearse movements further. In the case of the students with less experience in dance, each movement is integrated into a more flowin g sequence at first. And as they proceed, they become increasingly aware of the elements e ssential for making their own expressions, such as timing, sense of space and breathing wh ich are considered essential for creating original expressions. As above, dance technique and emotion al perceptions affect each other, and they constitute important aspects of creative dance expression.