The purpose of this study is to develop Team-Building learning (TB learning) as a teaching strategy of physical education to nurture social behavior and examine its effectiveness. The study specifically examined how TB learning would facilitate the transfer and maintenance of the student’s consciousness about social behavior that students learned in physical education classes. The study targeted physical education classes taught by three physical education teachers in three public junior high schools. Teacher X taught a unit with the intervention of TB learning targeting one class. Teacher Y taught a unit with the intervention of TB learning and a unit without the intervention of TB learning targeting two classes. Teacher Z taught a unit with the intervention of TB learning followed by a unit without the intervention of TB learning, as well as a unit without the intervention of TB learning followed by a unit with the intervention of TB learning targeting two classes. The teachers made students take a knowledge test, a formative evaluation for building friendship and a questionnaire using social skill scales before and after each unit.
As a result, the study found that TB learning 1) improved the student’s consciousness about collective and cooperative activities of students in physical education classes; 2) improved the student’s consciousness about social skills that they could use outside of physical education classes; and 3) maintained the student’s consciousness about the social skills that increased once.
The purpose of this research was to (a) clarify the process of how amateur runners develop an attraction to endurance running, and (b) identify potential areas of focus for student learning and motivation within the sport. Data were collected using semi-structured-interviews with 8 amateur runners. The mean age of all participants was 52.0±10.3 (mean±s.d.). The participants were interviewed while running together with the researcher. The researcher audio record the interviews while running and later transcribe the interviews. The data were analyzed using a Modified-Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA), which yielded 26 concepts. The concepts were classified into 6 categories and 5 sub-categories. Considering the relationship among these concepts, the attraction to running was found to be a process of the runners noticing their own development and “self-establishment” when running. This attraction usually expands when they are interacting with their family and other amateur runners. In particular, amateur runners recognize other runners as “media to know themselves” when they consider that the attraction to running is “interaction with the setting”. Learning experiences designed to motivate amateur runners for endurance running and find personal meaning in the sport should prioritize activities that involve group running and social interaction.