The purpose of the present study was to classify studies on physical education teacher education using theoretical orientations (Tinning, 2006), the framework of which is a basic conceptual structure, and to analyze research questions and methods. We classified domestic and international studies on physical education teacher education into behavioristic orientation, personal orientation, traditional/craft orientation, and critical inquiry orientation and analyzed the purpose and research methods of representative studies that characterized each orientation. The results revealed the research questions researchers have about teachers’ competency development and the research methods applied in each theoretical orientation. Moreover, it became clear that personal orientation was most common in overseas literature. The traditional/craft orientation was most common in domestic literature.
We realized that with regard to research methods, qualitative research is most common in foreign literature, while in Japanese literature, quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research are all nearly equally present. In Japan, the reason many qualitative studies are being conducted as a traditional/ craft orientation is believed to be that instructors use them to implement what they learn in workshops and programs in order to investigate their development and formation of competence. It is inferred that modeling can be achieved by showing the outcome of the program and training.
Within Japan, in the future, more incisive perspectives are desired (Fukami, 2015; Kihara, 2015; Kitazawa/Suzuki, 2013). By incisive perspectives, we mean those that examine—from the perspective of development and growth—the beliefs and perceptions of teachers related to their practice of teaching, as well as the processes by which they developed their teaching capabilities. This sort of research would indicate individualistic trends. In other words, in Japan, research examining individualistic trends is greatly desired.