This study aimed to clarify through a longitudinal study the characteristics of students ' knowledge in physical education class and how to develop it through reflection in micro teaching and teacher training. The method involved the content of six students ' reflections classified according to " the category of knowledge in physical education class " (Hamamoto et al., 2020). In addition, students ' perceptions of their knowledge in physical education classes were registered through questionnaires. Specifically, this questionnaire was conducted to ask students what they thought was " acquired " or " a challenge. "
As a result of this research, the following three points became apparent.
(1) Knowledge about pedagogy was often expressed in the students ' reflections. On the other hand, there was little expression of knowledge about students. The results in the questionnaire were similar. (2) Regarding the students’ reflection on teacher training, the rate of expressing knowledge about pedagogy was less, and knowledge about students was expressed increasingly. (3) The students gradually integrated simple knowledge through micro teaching and teacher training and developed it into complex knowledge. As the factors, it was important that students had sufficient knowledge about pedagogy and the subject matter during the micro teaching and before teacher training, and they could obtain knowledge about students during the teacher training.
The purpose of this study was to examine the acquisition of skills to kick and stop balls using Floor-Kick-Ball in a 2nd grade physical education class, and contributions of connect to middle grades. Floor-Kick-Ball is a kind of teaching material that separates children into offense and defense, and has them kick the ball with their feet. The participants were 21 children who participated in an 8-hour PE ball games unit. The main game for every class was Floor-Kick-Ball. The children's performance in the main games was videotaped and analyzed using criteria based on observational evaluation: success rate, quality, and contact surface for each pass, shot, and trap.
The main findings were as follows.
1) In passing skills, the success rate was more than 90% throughout the unit.
2) In shooting skills, it became possible for the participants to kick while aiming at a space without defenders and the corner of the court (χ2=28.970, p <.001).
3) In trapping skills, both pass stopping and shot stopping, it became possible for the participants to trap the ball in such a position so that the next play was easy to complete with one touch (χ2=47.581, <.001: χ2=36.494, <.001).
4) With instruction, it was possible for the participants to control the ball with the inside of their feet.
These results suggest that skills to kick and stop balls were acquired through floor kickball, a game that separates participants into offense and defense and has them kick the ball with their feet. Moreover, this material could connect to middle grades due to acquisition of correct on the ball skills and the pass to the forward space.
It has been pointed out that there is little research on lessons regarding Physical Fitness, and there is no discussion based on data (Suzuki et al., 2016).
The first purpose of this study was to clarify the actual situation of steps and episodes of teaching in the “Exercises to create various movements” performed by multiple teachers. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between the steps and episodes of teaching.
For 31 classes, we observed and recorded the scenes of physical education classes and measured steps taken by 124 children. The survey was conducted from June to December 2011.
The results were summarized as follows:
1）The number of steps was 1966.3 ± 523.1 steps (male: 2053.2 ± 544.6, female: 1878.0 ± 488.9) .
2）The distribution of episodes of teaching was 56.5 ± 12.1% for motor learning, 28.5 ± 11.2% for learning instruction, 12.5 ± 6.6% for management, and 2.5 ± 3.5% for cognitive learning.
3）The number of steps was significantly higher where the motor learning scene was longer than in the less (male: long 2219.7 ± 596.3 vs short 1875.6 ± 425.0; female: long 2028.9 ± 521.6 vs short 1722.0 ± 404.3).
From the above, it is considered that the Physical Fitness is a lesson in which many children can easily participate.