The study proposes a methodology of extraction and tracking of walking and standing people using mobile laser scanners. Measurement experiment was carried out in a populated real environment, i.e. exhibition hall, to assess the accuracy of extraction and tracking. Steps of the extraction and tracking are ; 1) Laser scanner movement is tracked with SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) using horizontal laser data, 2) Moving objects i.e. walking people are extracted by elimination of static objects from horizontal laser data based on the reconstructed trajectory of the horizontal laser scanner. The experiment revealed that accuracy of pedestrian extraction and tracking was 79.2%. 3) Three-dimensional data are generated by combining the laser scanner trajectory and slant laser data. After candidates of standing people are extracted through the clustering of three dimensional data using mean-shift algorithm, standing people are further extracted from the candidates with template matching using twelve templates. Out of 287 standing people, 190 was extracted through this process (extraction rate is 71.2%), while 287 clusters are extracted as standing people though 190 clusters actually corresponds to standing people (percentage of correct classification is 66.2%).
The 3 Dimensional Measuring System is a device to obtain the 3 dimensional coordinates of an object, using its numerous photo-images taken from different angles. This method basically requires the exact identification of the same corresponding points of all the obtained photo-images. But the more numerous are the images, the longer and harder it becomes if we depend on the manual work. To solve this problem we have developed colour-coded targets and a special algorithm with software, which automatically identifies the corresponding targets. The color code target that we developed has several features. The kinds of the color used for the code is six. On each target the same color should be used only in one place. Thus we could obtain 720 different combinations for the codes. However, in every actual situation, the condition of light, photo-taking and printing varies or is different and this create color-shift. To solve this problem, we added the sections to the target as a standard color reference or criterion parts. Thus by comparing the color in code-color section with these reference parts the correct identification of the color is always guaranteed and the color shift can be completely ignored. We made careful experiments and verified its efficiency with the very satisfactory result.
The objectives of the study are to develop a system to measure the data of wind flow in both the horizontal and vertical directions utilizing inertial single photogrammetry, and to establish the methodology for three dimensional measurement on site of wind flow near the ground surface. This system uses a one digital camera set on the ground, which photograph balloon released as a tracer, thereby three-dimensionally analyzing the balloon's path of particle. The paper first describes the fabrication of an analytical method, followed by experiments carried out using the method. The experiments consisted of a provision and utility experiment. The provision experiment consisted of a measurement of the three-dimensional position of ball suspended in a laboratory with a single photograph of the ball being used. The utility experiments measured the paths of particles of wind flowing on the schoolyard. The results of the experiments proved that the fabricated analytical method was effective.
A method for precipitation retrievals taking into account a geometric relation between microwave radiometer and nimbus, in particular, ice cloud is proposed. Observation angle of microwave radiometer onboard satellites is, in general, set at around 55 degree to use non-sensitive observation angle for ocean wind speed estimation. Although precipitation is estimated with rain absorbing frequency of 18GHz band data and rain scattering frequency of 85GHz band data,observation location are different from each other.Namely,scattering due to ice particles occurs in a relatively high altitude,above the freezing level while attenuation due to raindrops occurs in a relatively low altitude of atmosphere. The method proposed here is based on scattering due to ice particles and or raindrops which can be estimated with the AMSR-E 89GHz channel of data that is sensitive to volume scattering by precipitation,especially ice particles above freezing level.Experimental results with the AMSR-E data show that the situation of estimated precipitation differ from the situation of actual precipitation derived from ground based rain radar data.
Though GPS is widely used for outdoor positioning, there are no dominant technology for indoor positioning. However various technologies are proposed for indoor positioning. This report introduces some of them.
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