This article supplements the above mentioned article, which was published in Vol. 1, No. 1 of this review. In the previous article, the three ancient codes, Yôrô-Ryô of Japan (8th Century), Kieng-kuk-tâ-chen of Korea (15th Century) -and Lê-trieu-hinh-lûat of Annam (15 th Century), were compared with the present law or custom in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Jakarta, 1_??_ Philippines and among the Maccassars and Bugis of Celebes. The following similarities among them were pointed out : 1) The shares of the eldest son is not very much larger than that of other sons. 2) The share of a female child is equal to that of a male child. 3) Importance is attached to the property relationship between man and wife, to the mutual inheritance by conjugals, and to the difference between pre-marital separate property and post-marital joint property acquired through joint efforts. It is concluded that these, together with other similarities in the family system, and economic and cultural similarities existing among these peoples, justify the conclusion that these rice-cultivating peoples of East Asia formed one cultural sphere in ancient times. The present article supports the above conclusion by adding new materials concerning ancient Japan and Korea, which appeared to be the most controversial point in the previous article. Main emphasis in the present article is upon the study of the article covering the extinct family in the chapter on Mourning and Funerals in the Yôrô-Ryô of Japan, which was not touched upon in the previous article. It also treats the widow's right of inheritance among various peoples starting with the right of the wife of the deceased eldest son in Ancient Korea.
There are already many studies of media and content of mass communication, but the effect of its content remains to be carefully studied. In accordance with the classification adopted by messrs. Berelson and Merton the content of mass communications may be divided into emotional and rational components. This article points out that rational content alone is not sufficient to achieve the desired effects because it can not be understood by mass audiences. The role of personal communication in bridging interrupted communication channels and the image of the transmitter of opinion in its relationship to the structure of the group sponsoring the opinion are discussed. Transmitters of opinion are classified into three types according to their degree of leadership and the functions performed by each of them in the community are then touched upon. This leads to a consideration of the structure of mass communication and points out the danger that the content of communication will be further distored by personal prejudices and propagandistic intentions.
The economic structure of a feudal society is built on the communal organization of production. Roughly speaking, this organization is divided into village and urban communities, but, logically and historically, the former is the origin of such organization. In Japan, tribe, kumi and family have been studied particularly by sociologists. The problem of community (Gemeinde) has been taken up by historians; especially those of European history. How should the results of these two fields of study be correlated? Many people are aware of this problem, but no satisfactory progress has yet been made in this direction. The present article seeks to promote the union of these two in studying the Village community (Dorfgemeinde) as a type; and it tries to grasp the meaning of Flurzwang (regulation of culture) and to apply the concept by comparing three villages at the foot of Mt. Kitesakutade and their methods of regulating irrigation.
Family stability is an important concern in modern society. In Japan, there has never been any predictive study concerning this problem. In order to stimulate Japanese scholars and case workers to undertake study of this problem it is desirable to know something of the nature of such studies in foreign countries, especially in the United States where most work has been done on the problem to date. This paper is limited to a review of research methods in the United States. Such predictive studies can be classified into four types, according to the following two criteria. A. Predication of probabilities of marital happiness from premarital factors, or prediction from marital conditions. B. Prediction of probabilities of marital happiness by the use of other, methods, such as the post-facto, the cross-sectional, the follow-up and the longitudinal methods. The nature of these techniques can be suggested in this manner; 1. Post-facto predictive studies from premarital experience. 2. Post-facto predictive studies from marital life. 3. Follow-up predictive studies from premarital life. 4. Follow-up predictive studies from marital life. The following are the methodological problems dealt with in this article according to this classification. 1. The halo effect in post-facto studies. 2. The representative nature of samples. 3. Combinations of predictive items between husband and wife and configurations of predictive factors. 4. Reliability and validity of happiness scales and predictive scales. 5. Various problems in practice, etc. Finally, this paper treats, from the methodological and practical point of view, the relation between the method of statistical prediction and the method of prediction from case studies.
This report is a survey of farmers in rural villages in the diluvial zone of the Atsumi Peninsula; it is designed to furnish data on the following questions : What were the occupations and social classes of families before their settlement there ? For what reason did they settle there as cultivators ? What are their special relations ? What is the relationship between the labor force and family members? How are they adapting themselves to local conditions? This report shows that the cultivators are people who emigrated from rural areas where they were occupationally and economically unfit for the work of cultivation. The cultivators' villages on the Atsumi Peninsula are not different from their villages of origin as farming there is conducted in small units dependent on family labor and under the in fluence of complicated social relations in the villages of origin. This report discusses the present cultivation projects which are designed with a view to establishing more democratic villages and others suggestions for future planning.