The effects of gratitude and indebtedness on interpersonal orientation (IO) and psychological well-being (PWB) were investigated. In Study 1, female university students (N＝204) responded to a questionnaire. Results indicated that IO mediated the relationship between the obligation to repay, which is a component of indebtedness, and PWB. Moreover, gratitude had a direct positive effect on PWB. Based on these results, in Study 2, we explored why indebtedness had a positive effect on IO. We hypothesized that consciousness of reciprocal interpersonal relationship would moderate the relationship between the obligation to repay and IO. Female university students (N＝199) responded to a questionnaire. Results indicated that consciousness of reciprocity, which is a component of consciousness of reciprocal interpersonal relationships, moderated the relationship between the obligation to repay and IO. These results suggest that indebtedness might have positive functions. Moreover, these results contribute to clarifying the mechanisms relating gratitude and indebtedness to PWB.
Involuntary autobiographical memories are memories of personal experiences that occur without a conscious attempt at their retrieval. Such memories are known to occur as recurrent involuntary memories; in other words, recurrent involuntary autobiographical memories are memories that people subjectively experience repetitively. These studies aim to clarify the emotional features and functions of recurrent involuntary memories in non-clinical populations. In Study 1, 170 undergraduates were asked to recall one recurrent involuntary memory from their everyday life. In Study 2, 99 undergraduates were asked to recall one positive and one negative recurrent involuntary memory. In Study 3, 202 undergraduates were asked to recall three recurrent involuntary memories. The relationship between emotional valence and the three functions (self, social, and directive) of autobiographical memory was analyzed. The results indicated that the recurrent involuntary memories were dominated by negative emotions and functioned mainly as a guide to the present and future behavior.
Japanese people’s experience of nostalgia was investigated and difference between nostalgia in Japan, and in English-speaking countries were compared. Undergraduate student participants (N＝61) were divided into three conditions: “nostalgic recollection”, “ordinary recollection”, and “positive recollection”. Content analysis indicated that consistent with previous studies, Japanese students describe more about themselves, or about a relationship with a specific person during nostalgic narratives than in other narratives. However, the proportion of description including acceptance of the past was lower than in previous studies. Results also indicated that less positive and more negative affect were observed in the nostalgic recollection condition than in the other two conditions. In addition, there was more “bittersweet” affect in the nostalgic recollection condition. Furthermore, no appreciable differences were observed in the three conditions in relation to the three major functions of nostalgia―self-esteem, meaning in life, and perceived social support. We have discussed the necessity for exploring the uniqueness of nostalgia in Japan compared to that in English-speaking countries.
This study examined the effects of uncertainty and importance of a positive emotional event on the duration of emotion. We hypothesized that (i) uncertainty reduces the rate of decreasing emotional reaction by extending the duration of attention to the event, and (ii) importance increases the initial emotional reaction but does not reduce the decreasing rate. Ninety-two participants answered an ostensible ability test and received bogus positive feedback as emotional manipulation. Next, uncertainty and importance of feedback were manipulated across three conditions. Participants in the uncertain condition were told that the ability measured would be disclosed after the experiment. In the important/unimportant conditions, participants were instructed that an important/unimportant ability had been measured. Next, participants reported on their emotional state and performed a filler task for five minutes, after which they reported on their emotional state again. Results showed that participants in the uncertain and important conditions experienced more increased initial emotional reaction and longer duration of emotion than those in the unimportant condition. Although the effect of importance was consistent with the hypothesis, the effect of uncertainty was not.
Clinical reports thus far indicate that patients with dissociative disorders exhibit cutaneous sensory symptoms. However, only few studies focused on the relationship between these symptoms and dissociation. Here, we investigated the relationships among cutaneous symptoms (Cutaneous9), somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20), and self-reported history of childhood abuse (CATS) in undergraduates (N＝368). Exploratory factor analysis performed simultaneously on the scores of Cutaneous9 and SDQ-20 items, extracted four factors- “Somatic paralysis,” “Perceptual change,” “Cutaneous symptoms,” and “Urogenital symptoms and motor inhibition.” Analysis of variance demonstrated that the group with high CATS scores tends to have high “Somatic paralysis” and “Perceptual change” factor scores, supporting previous findings that these symptoms are relatively common in patients with pathological dissociation, and those with traumatic childhood experiences. These symptoms are considered to be similar to animal defensive reactions that are mediated by endogenous opioids. Moreover, items including “tingling,” “numbness,” and “tender to touch” in Cutaneous9 converged on the “Somatic paralysis” factor together with certain SDQ-20 items, suggesting that these cutaneous symptoms might be associated with pathological tendencies and traumatic childhood experiences.