(I) Scientific classification of emotion started with Woodworth's classification experiments, yielding circular arrangement of fundamental emotions. Schlosberg arranged this circle on a plane of pleasantness and attention-rejection, adding the third dim.of sleep-tension. Yoshida(1970, 1976) attempted multidimensional scaling of words for emotion, in place of photo-pictures of these emotional expressions. (II) With support of Toyota Foundation, Yoshida's group (1976- 77)asked emotions and emotional reactions to 47 situations experienced, in an industrialized society of Japan. Factor analysis of male and female, young, middle-aged, and older people (one cluster consits of 100 people), yielded several clusters of emotion.One peculiarity is the preponderance of "no response at all, even he or she sees a grave situation, or meets such situations." They do nothing, like looking at a TV sceneary". We regarded it as a sign of so-called "shirake-mood" or a kind of resignation.(III)Experimental aesthetics started with Fechner's contribution. With elaboration of statistical techniques, industrial organizations are eager to know the current status and future trends of consumer preferences. Althoguh only a few reports are available in English, considerable facts are accumulating in Japan. J, Prescott with Yoshida's group (1992) revealed marked change in preference-concentration relationship, compared with Engel's data some 60 years ago.
This study aimed at examining experimentally wide-range functions of the affection of love in their relationships among kindergarten children, mothers, and grandmothers, using the psychological and physiological measures. We chose as subjects families in which three-generations live together in the same household (including four-generation families ). For a control group, nuclearfamilies were chosen. In our study, special attention was given to find out how living together with grandmothers affect grandchildren's affectional behavior in relation to their mothers. Four experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, mothers and grandmothers were shown a video film in color in which their real child (grandchild) and unrelated children appeared one by one, and were asked to self-evaluate their moods by R.Plutchik's Mood Scale when looking at each of the 4 children. Positive ratings were significantly higher when looking at their own children, but in the physiological indices such as heart rates (HRs), blood pressures (BPs) and skin temperatures of the face, there were significant differences between mothers and grandmothers. In Experiment 2, an affective arousal stimulus (animation video film in color for children) was shown to mothers, grandmothers, and children together, and changes of their HRs (whether they showed the same tendencies or not) were checked. Then, families in which all three members registered similar HRs when watching video scenes, and those in which 3 member registered different HRs when watching video scenes were selected, and their affective interrelations were examined with the Rorschach test. In Experiment 3, the affective arousal process of grandmothers, mothers, and children family by family, especially skin temperatures of their faces, when they were shown the affective stimulus (the same as in Experiment 1) was examined. The results showed that all three members registered lower temperatures of the skin at the tip of the nose when they watched a sad scene, than the scene just before.In Experiment 4, mothers' and grandmothers' attitudes toward children, those of mothers in the three generation families and those in nuclear families, were examined. The results showed the following: Grandmothers' attitudes were evaluated according to the 10 types, such as rejective type, strict type, doting type, etc. The results showed that grandmothers' percentages of scores were lower on an average than those of mothers', and that mothers of three-generation families were at a marginally significant level as to the percentages of scores of the 10 attitudes. All through the four experiments, grandmothers' love toward grandchildren, and childrens' affectional behaviors in three - generation families, and those in nuclear families, were compared and discussed.
This article is to feature a few sets of empirical findings from our research that have impact on the field of study on socioemotional development both in Japan and the West. One of these issues is the discovery that Japanese infants show different patterns of attachment behavior in the Strange Situation and an infant's disposition to become irritable can make an important contribution to patterns of attachment behavior. A second set of data concerns the emotional communication between mother and 5-month-old infant. Our findings suggest that the Japanese mothers respond less livelily to their infant's emotional expressions. Thirdly, an interview of the mother concerning her preception of her infant's emotions reveals that Japanese and American mothers differ from each other in the extent to which they emphasize different emotions. Finally, shame, embarrassment, shyness and childrearing practices in Japanese culture are discussed.