The first purpose of this study was to investigate Japanese adults' evaluations of appropriateness and effectiveness of anger expression strategies. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of their evaluations and interpersonal goals (i. e., relationship and communication) on the likelihood of using each anger expression strategy. Two hundred and nineteen undergraduates were asked to read a vignette in which a person displayed anger using various anger expression strategies toward either a superior, an equal, or a subordinate whose behavior evoked the anger. The participants were then asked to evaluate each anger expression strategy for its appropriateness and effectiveness. They were also asked to identify themselves as the angry person in the vignette and to rate the intensity of their own anger, the importance of interpersonal goals, and the likelihood of using each anger expression strategy. Findings suggested that pointing out the target person's faults calmly was reported to be a competent anger expression strategy especially when superiors expressed their anger. Regression analyses revealed that the cognitive evaluation of appropriateness of each expression strategy influenced the likelihood of using the strategy.
Categorical theory (e. g. Ekman, 1971) and dimensional theory (e. g. Russell, 1980) are popularly used to describe feelings and emotions. However these two theories have been largely ignored in gesture studies. One reason appears to be that the research has been based on of facial expressions and words, as such as not been applied to other studies. This research examined the relationships between feelings and hand movements. 106 students (53 pairs) participated in the experiment, where they talked to each other about various emotional themes, and then filled in questionnaires on their feelings. Their conversations were videotaped. The cumulative duration of self-adaptors and gestures, as well as the velocity, size, smoothness and accent of the gestures was rated by 3 coders. The results indicated that some feelings do have an affect on self-adaptors and gestures, while other feelings, however, were different that the theoretical underpinnings would have suggested.