Economics, especially neoclassical economics, neglected anomalies in normative economic theory and the relevance of psychological variables for the explanation and prediction of economic behavior. Although emotion has long played a key role in many behavioral theories, it has not generally been recognized as an important component of human judgment and decision making. Behavioral economics, which was pioneered by Kahneman and Tversky, improved the relevance and realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory. They developed a descriptive model of decision making under uncertainty, which they call prospect theory, as an alternative model of expected utility theory. Prospect theory proposes two functions; the value function and the decision weight function. Three principles (reference dependence, diminishing sensitivity and loss aversion) are invoked to explain the characteristic curvature of the value function. That is, the value function is defined on deviations from a reference point, is concave for gains and convex for losses, and is generally steeper for losses than for gains. The decision weight is a nonlinear transformation of the probability scale that overweights low probabilities and underweights moderate and high probabilities. The descriptive study in behavioral economics challenged the theory of rational choice in decision making and suggested that anomalies should not be considered as errors or biases, but they should be accepted as valid elements of human experience. Moreover, to elaborate theories of behavioral economics, it is necessary to incorporate the perspective of evolutionary adaptive significance of behaviors into the models of decision making.
We investigated how emotional responses reflected in autonomic nervous system activities and facial muscles activities are related to learning in decision-making. Based on the conventional Q-learning model, we constructed novel learning models that incorporate the trial-to-trial variability in the physiological responses. In our models, the variables reflecting the physiological activities can modulate two important parameters of the model: (1) the learning rate, which determines the degree of update in response to the current choice outcome, and (2) the reward value, which quantifies the valence of the current outcome. We applied the models to the data from two types of decision-making task; one used emotional pictures as decision outcomes, and another used monetary reward. The valence of the outcomes was stochastically contingent on participants' choices. We demonstrated that proposed models that incorporated physiological measures including skin conductance, corrugator muscle activity and orbicular muscle activity, improved the prediction of the model, mainly for the emotional picture task. Our results suggest that some emotional responses are related to the subsequent choice behavior.
In this study, we conducted a simulation experiment to examine how client hostility and empathy (personal distress) affect emotional exhaustion, performance, and physiological indicators in human service workers. Fifty-two university students listened to a recorded dialogue between a client (who had applied for counseling) and a receptionist. The client's hostility was manipulated (hostile vs. non-hostile), and the participants were given to believe that they would receive a call from the same client as reception staff after the listening session. Their emotional exhaustion, physiological indicators before and after listening to the dialogue, and empathy traits were measured. The results indicated that (a) the hostile client exhausted the participants more than the non-hostile client did. (b) Personal distress and hostility had a significant interactive effect on performance. (c) Physiological indicators were not affected by hostility and empathy. The relationships among these results and the mechanisms of burnout were discussed.
In this study, we created J-DERS, a Japanese version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; originally developed by Gratz and Roemer (2004)) in order to examine factor structure, reliability, and validity. The subjects included 451 undergraduate and graduate students. We conducted a survey and implemented a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) that assumed a six-factor model of the DERS. Since initial results showed that the overall suitability was low, we implemented a CFA that assumed a four-factor model based on the four-domain theory of emotional ability presented by Gratz and Roemer (2004). As a result, the suitability proved to be higher than that obtained using the six-factor model. Concurrent validity was also confirmed through Japanese version of the negative mood regulation (J-NMR), feelings experience scale (FES), effortful control (EC), and the Japanese version of action control scale 90 (ACS-90). Moreover, internal consistency regarding each subscale of the J-DERS was confirmed.
Although recent studies suggest the existence of distinct positive emotions in terms of an evolutionary framework, no study has examined the facial expression in several positive emotions. Present study examined the subjective experience of emotion and facial muscle activity by facial electromyographic (fEMG) monitoring in three types of positive emotions; amusement, attachment, and relaxed. The films eliciting these three positive emotions and neutral film serving as control were presented to 19 Japanese participants and self-reported experience of the emotions and fEMG were assessed. The results indicated that the films elicited the target positive emotions. In addition, the positive emotions activated the orbicularis oculi and the zygomatic major muscles according to the degree of arousal of the positive emotions. These results suggest that distinct positive emotions elicited different experience of emotion and facial muscle could be activated corresponding to the arousal of the emotions.
Sadness is elicited by various situations and pointed out the difference of quality. However, the difference isn't investigated. The purpose of this study is to categorize situations eliciting sadness and to show the order as a basic study of revealing the different aspects of sadness. As pre-research, 163 participants were asked to recall their sadness events and write about them honestly and openly. On the basis of that, 36 situations were chosen and represented on stimulus cards eliciting sadness, which consisted of six episodes by six situations. Using Russell's (1983) grouping method, 64 participants were asked to classify the 36 cards into groups of two, five, seven and twelve. The results of the multidimensional method analysis showed that all 36 situations fell roughly into a circular order in a space definable by two dimensions: toward oneself–toward others and the possibility of self-coping–the impossibility of self-coping. In addition, cluster analysis revealed six clusters. The results of the MDS corresponded pretty much to that of the cluster analysis. This study revealed that situations eliciting sadness may fall into six categories: “loss,” “unable to achieve their goal,” “romantic breakup,” “family friction,” “personal injury or disease,” and “loneliness.”