The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of a listener’s involvement on a speaker’s metaphor production and on a third person’s metaphor appraisal of emotional and politeness intensity. In Study 1, participants (N＝119) were assigned to both an involved condition (a speaker is supposed to explain his/her emotion to a listener who aroused the speaker’s emotion) and a not-involved condition, and asked to make metaphors that expressed his/her worst lecture and cooking experiences. In Study 2, participants (N＝24) were asked to rate the negative emotional intensity of metaphors which were collected in Study 1 as readers of those metaphors. In Study 3, participants (N＝167) were asked to rate the harshness and indirectness of the metaphors, again as readers of those metaphors. Results showed that there were metaphors specific to each of the involved and not-involved conditions. In addition, metaphors produced in the involved condition were rated higher in harshness and negative emotional intensity, and lower in indirectness of expression, compared to metaphors created in the not-involved condition.
The current study replicated Lindquist et al. (2006)’s study, which suggested that the semantic satiation of emotion words delayed emotion recognition from affective facial image. The current study also examined whether it can be applied to schematic face, affective voice, and affective music. The results revealed that although the effect of semantic satiation for emotion recognition from affective facial image was found similar to previous studies, it did not influence emotion recognition from schematic face. Additionally, semantic satiation did influence emotion recognition from affective voice and music. It was suggested that although affective category of emotion words was used in emotion recognition through affective facial image, voice, and music, the affective category of emotion words may not be used in emotion recognition from schematic face. Finally, the possibility that emotion words play a different role in emotion recognition through various cues was discussed.
The present study implemented three experiments to examine the effect of back ground color on emotion recognition from facial expression. The results showed that when subjects observed facial expression sufficiently green facilitated negative judgment for neutral face, whereas when subjects observed facial expression momently green compared with red facilitated positive judgment for neutral face. Furthermore, red enforced anger and yellow enforced happiness, though green did not enforce happiness. Given these results, the possibility that the effects of background color on emotion recognition from facial expression may be varied with the time of presentation of stimuli was suggested. Finally, the association between color and emotion was discussed in terms of the innate association and acquired association.