This study investigated expressive writing, methods of providing effective psychological support. People can promote self-efficacy in controlling their emotions and emotional quotient by writing down emotions and thoughts about stressful experiences. I investigated which factors influenced people’s willingness to engage in expressive writing—that is, how much people want to use or explore the benefits of expressive writing. A group-style questionnaire was administered on 361 undergraduate students. Results suggested that sensitivity to confront certain facts of their own experience, one of the subscales of the questionnaire, was related to willingness to engage in expressive writing. A t-test revealed that willingness to engage in expressive writing for the high-sensitivity group was lower than for the low-sensitivity group. A covariance structure analysis revealed that sensitivity had a negative impact, and positive thoughts and attitudes about expressive writing had a positive impact on willingness to engage in it. In conclusion, future studies should examine ways to decrease the negative impact of sensitivity to confront facts on willingness to engage in expressive writing. For example, one way might be to write only positive emotions and thoughts.
According to the response style theory, human responses to a depressive mood are divided into two styles: ruminative and distractive responses. Although response styles reportedly have both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, the factor associated with the adaptiveness of these response styles is unclear. The present study examined the mediation and moderation effects of voluntary attention control skills (selective, divided, and switching attention) on the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive forms of ruminative/distractive response styles and depression. In total, 234 Japanese undergraduates completed questionnaires of response styles, attention control skills, and depressive symptom. Selective attention and divided attention skill mediated the effects of adaptive response styles on depression. In addition, when combined with higher divided attention skill, the increase of depression by maladaptive response styles was mitigated. These results suggest that attention control skills could explain the adaptive process of response styles, and that heightening particular skills would be efficacious in reducing depression.
One of the methods to measure the Implicit self-esteem (ISE) is the method that measures by degree the strength of the between stimuli of “self-positive,” “self-negative,” “other-positive” and “other-negative”. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a measure that can extract the strength the between stimuli of each combination. A previous study measuring ISE with IRAP showed that the “self-positive” of the between stimuli was strongly indicated, and that it was associated with psychological health. The current study measured the ISE of Japanese university students using the IRAP, and verified the accumulation of knowledge of “self-positive” at two points. As a result, Japanese university students showed the same tendency as the previous research, the score of “self-positive” was highest among the combinations, and it showed the correlation the between“self-positive” and optimistic thinking. The findings demonstrate the advantages of IRAP, which was able to verify the each combination of ISE.