ABSTRACT: This paper is to discuss the relationship between the points of interest of the people who contemplate the aesthetic aspects of bridge design and their actual evaluation thereof. The contemplative behaviors of people were directly measured by the optical instruments(so called ?gEyemark Recorder?h). The static pattern which is concerned with the spatial distribution and complexity of the loci of eyemarks of individual subjects are particularly focused on in this paper. The complexity of this pattern for each subject is measured by the information theory, and the pattern is expressed in terms of the numerical value called "Amount of Information".
The treatment of connections largely influences the taste of visual impression of a bridge. This paper discuss the detail design of a bridge relating with its total form. Firstly two design trends are shown through the review on recent works and documents that are monocoque style and multilevel composition one. Then four fine works, Tatsumi-shinbashi, Haneda-sky-arch, which are examples of monocoque style, Bach de Roda Felipe II br, and Lusitania br, designed by S.Calatrava as the examples of multilevel composition style, are analyzed into visual elements and connections. Then the each characteristic order in composition and the role of detail design are shown.
This paper describes the architectural design of the ventilation buildings of the immersed tunnel at Niigata Port, which is under construction to solve the absence of a road connecting the right and the left banks at the estuary of the Sinano River. The ventilation buildings will be new landmarks at Niigata Port with 40 meters high and play a leading role ih the composition of the landscape. These are composed of four towers to reduce the impression of a large, overpowering structure and maintain a feeling of familiarity. Also, these shapes are designed to vary towards various view points.
This paper presents a numerical method for predicting the influence of local buckling in component plates and distortional phenomenon on the ultimate strength of thinwalled, welded steel box girders curved in plan. Based on the analytical results of cylindrical steel shell panels under compression and bending, a modified stress-strain curve allowing for local buckling of plate components is proposed. The effect of distortion is considered through incorporating additional strain in the reference stage of the incremental process in the nonlinear flexure analysis. Theoretical predictions obtained using the proposed method are compared to experimental test results. Nonlinear behavior of the test girders are illustrated and reasonable agreement between tests and theory is observed.
The prefabricated steel deck of battledeck floor type was applied to a bridge reconstruction. The work was carried out in four months without stopping traffic. Two loading tests, one during the construction and the other after the completion, and a stress histogram measurement of the bridge were conducted. The load used for the tests was a truck crane with a total weight of 678.2kN. The strain of main girders, longitudinal ribs of the deck and supporting cross beams was measured near the span center. The stress range histogram was measured for four days. Rain-flow method was used to process measured stress. The tests and measurement confirmed that the reconstruction design of the bridge was adequate.
A new computational technique in the finite element collapse analysis of framed structures, which is called' the adaptively shifted integration technique', is proposed and applied to the analysis of static and dynamic collapse behaviors of steel as well as concrete framed structures. In the present method, plastic hinges, cracking and fracture on an arbitrarily located cross-section in each finite element can be taken into account in a physically explicit and exact way by shifting the locations of numerical integration points in the element. The present technique can be easily implemented in the existing codes equipped with standard beam elements.
For reconsideration of the corrosion protect at the interior of a steel box girder we reserch a corrosion environment of the interior of a steel box girder at Hakucho Bridge (at Hokkaido). This bridge i s composed of two box girders of which the interior as well as the exterior was not painted on the basis of the local design specifications. In one of the two box girders, a dehumidification plant was installed and has been operated for one and half year. We report about the experiment, and measurements of a temperature and a humidity, a working condition of the dehumidifier, an example of ACM corrosion sensor's output.