On the Universal Exhibition at Vienna in 1873 Japanese exhibits mainly consisting of handicrafts were favorably received. Through the participation in the Exhibition, the Japanese word "美術"(Bijutsu)" was coined and the new concept called 'fine arts applied to industry' , which had been diffused throughout Europe in the second half of the 19th century, was introduced into Japan. However at the time in Japan the concept was uncertain as well as the meaning of the new word"美術" because of the undeveloped mechanization of domestic industries and the export promotion measures of traditional handicrafts.
The purpose of my study is to inquire into the Czech modern design between the wars. I researched the idea of an artist Karel Teige (1900-51) who contributed to the development of the avant-garde group 'Devetsil' (1920-3 1 ). Karel Teige advocated 'Art for life' in his idea of art 'Poetism'. He tried to change the position of poetry into visual expression through his term 'Picture-poem'. His graphical works in 1920's were representative of this idea of 'Poetism'. Furthermore, the theory of 'Poetism' extended not only to the field of arts but also to technological works like film, airplane, radio and the environmental art in the city space.
The Akita Mokko Co. Ltd. made a catalogue in the beginning of the Taisho period, and produced various kind of bent wood furniture. At the start of the Showa period, the variety of products that Akita Mokka Co. Ltd. became more limited. Thanks to the Kogeishdosho that adopted this design made that the orginality of the products increased.It is certainly that the Japanese bent wood furniture tried to catch up with products made in Europe, but it also a fact that we can perceive orginality from a early stage.
There were historical models such as Daimler and Hildebrand in earlier German history, but there was no boom period such as seen in England and the USA, from the first decade of the 20^<th> century, when motorcycles were energetically produced. Those produced in Germany were few and definitely inferior in both performance and appearance. In the 1950's, the German motorcycle industry was not then as motor sports-oriented as the rest of the world, but was more active in developing new types of models as means of transportation for the masses. These were only passing fashions, among which there were no longsurviving models.
The word "Tenka-Ichi" was popular during the Muromachi period (1392-1573) and meant the "absolute best throughout Japan without peer." Artisans began to appear in Kyoto, Nara, Sakai and other commercial and industrial cities in the Kansai area during the latter half of the 16th century who called themselves by the title "Tenka-lchi " In this thesis, I use text and pictorial material to clarify the activities of artisans who referred to themselves by the title "Tenka-Ichi" and who displayed that word on their own signboards.
In this report the Japanese exthibits from the Pbiladelphia Intemational Exhibition of 1876 visible through nine illustrations froin the newspaper of The Daily Graphic published on August 8,1876 are examined by the floor plan and the pictwes taken in the Japanese section in the Mian Building at the Exilibition. Some illustrations are able to be found out their exhibit place, and be kuown their identities. We could also know that illustrations from newspspers were drawn as well as they had realities, because they were media informed actual scenes. We would get more imformation of Japanese exhibits from this kind of illustrations, when we examine with the other materials.
Prof.Kotaro Honda invented the KS Magnet Steel in l916. It was the strongest parmanent magnet in the world at that time. He was the director of the 2nd Division of the Provisional Institute of Physical and Chemical Research which was initiated in Tohoku Imperial University. The Institute was renamed as the Research Institute for lron. Steel and Other Materials in 1922. Prof. Honda and the members of the National Research Institute of Industrial Arts had made every efforts to produce the industrial art objects using KS Magnet Steel since 1931. They were developed into the special products in Sendai, Japan before the World War II.
The display of the "Examples of False Principles in Decoration", or the "Chamber of Horrors" as it was commonly known, was a unique attempt by the Department of Practical Art to educate the public how to appreciate the "true" or "good" taste by showing the "bad" examples at the Museum of Ornamental Art m 1852-3. It was closed because some manufacturers appealed that they did not want dictatorship in "taste" which could affect their sales. This display can be considered as a milestone in design history due to its modernity observable in the 20^<th> century arguments of "good" and "bad" design.
Pacific House Japan &apm; Mildred Warder are the forerunners of Japanese interior design offices established after the World War II. Both offices were organized by American designers who were exofficers of U.S. army, designed mostly the interior space of the buildings of U.S. (army bases, embassies, ) or foreign-affiliated firms, and brought Americandesign methods to Japan.
This essay describes the process by which Japan's advertising design in the reconstruction period was changed by adding a roll of propagating the corporate image, focusing on the changes in the sense of the advertising interest by acceptance of PR theory and conceptualization of advertising expressions. This theory was introduced under the guidance of GHQ into Japan after World War ll. It was generally understood as a strategy necessary for enterprises (government) to appeal to the public as welfare enterprises (organizations). At the begiuning of its introduction, brought innovation to the public relations of the government and was applied to advertising design such as posters. In the 1950s, its influence spread into the private enterprises.
This study investigates the scholarship on Japan image in Vlctorian era, and compares the result with our study of articles on Japan in The Studio, for investlgation of the information and the image of Japanese arts and crafts in public reader in the second half of Victorian era. The Studio found in 1893,just before the Sino-Japanese War. It was the period that the concern of general magazines and reviews separeted from japonalserie. The Studio had published articles on Japan since the start. it is suggested t.hat the readers of The Studio had other image on japan except japonaiserie. On the other hand, it is probably that the words for valuation for Japanese arts and crafts in The Studio, as strange and grotesque, related with the words in general magazines and reviews.
In 1931,a major earthquake struck an area around Napier in New Zealand. Construction work then began on damage recovery. The time was the Art Deco period. As a consequence, buildings influenced by the Art Deco school at the beginning of the 1930s remain in the town of Napier, The results of the author's study visit to the town are outlined in this paper.
The purpose of this study is to examine Kuwasawa Yoko's activity as a designer in 1950s. Kuwasawa designed various everyday wears with a vinylon and worked with Ohara Soichiro and Yanagi Yositaka. Because Ohara and Yanagi are from bringing up with a vinylon. Kuwasawa was taught "the common beauty" of "MINGEI" by them She designed "working clothes" with the thought.Her ideal was "the clothes whlch were easy to act." This became her lodestar of the later designer activity.
The main subject of this study is to discuss about the "Light Art" as a starting point of the subsequent "Technology Art". The history of its category formation and the origin of artificial light used art are investigated. The introduction process of artificial light in Japanese art and position of "Light Art" are discussed The catalogs of exhibitions in 1950-1970 are researched as material . The articles of journal and newspaper are referred to compensate the unavailable catalogs. The exhibitions held at museum, art gallery, department store or else public facilities are picked up.
This study is an investigation of the formation and development of the artist colony in Darmstadt between 1898 and 1914,its aims and impact on the history of German arts and crafts. Established by Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig of Hessen in 1899,it primarily developed the applied and decorative art of Jugendstil. An analysis of Peter Behrens' design motives and his design philosophy seeks to show how the colony produced valuable artists and work that effected cultwal reform.
This study focused on the influence of Creenaway Style upon the smock design in the late 19th century. The following results were made; The smock saw in a new light in the 1870s by artists and the aesthetic movement member. Especially Kate Greenaway drew the traditional smocks in her books and it is a beginning that the smock was introduced to upper class as the children's costume. The Liberty started to sell 'Greenaway style' dress with smocking for young girl by 1880's and became popular. Though smocking was used for ornamens of garments, the traditional smock was disappeared. The meanig of the word 'smock' had changed to the girl's dress with the ornament smocking from the traditional men's garment.
"Characters" can indicate the symbol of a culture. Printing typefaces are important media of cultural communication. Chinese printing technologies began from the Tang Dynasty; extended and developed by the Sung Dynasty for the Civil Service Examination System, home school and publication. The Sung typefaces, which used in the Xylographic Books, are the source of printing typefaces.Be it oiental or western culture, initial-printing typefaces was enlightened by the writing typefaces. Printing typefaces extend the human minds and handiwork abilities. We can utilize the calligraphic arts to observe the esthetic senses or formative notions. The first step of this research intended to carry out historical investigations.
This study deals the "Behavioral Design" as a manifest of norm that standardized by the Korean Confucianism, and aims to grasp the contemporary situation of "Behavioral Design" in Korean Confucianism from investigation with questionnaires to undergraduate students in Andong city, Korea. Results are as follows; i) 79 questionnaire items were type into four groups "lifestyle" "preparation" sacrificial rituals""teaching of Confucius" through the MDA-OR. ii) Importance of teaching of Confucius have been recognized, the actual behavior in the ordinary dietary life is disappeared because of the change of lifestyle and consciousness to Confucius. iii) The behaviors in the sacrificial rituals have formed strictly and it emerged in every action. On the other hand, there are doubtful opimions to blind acceptance of Confucius, too.
This research aimes mainly to show the historic transition of the Taiwanese wooden craft industry in Lu-Gang during the interval of Japanese possession period from 1895 to l945. Our findings can be concluded as following.(1) The Change in the habit of using wood. (2) The Formation of the local and formal system of woodworking.(3) The actual condition of sculpture and Buddha sculpture industries. (4) The differences in the Design of Factory made furniture and in the habit of using this furniture.
In this paper, the authors discuss a present state of historical museums in Korea. This research is based on a questionnaire survey. As a result of our analysis, the following assertions can be made : (1) It is important for museums to make relationships with local community and residents, and to urge positive participation of residents. Therefore, museums should practice various educational activities which reflect those relationships. (2) The local residents are urged to use museums by museums' activities which promote better relationships between museum and local residents. It is needed to make reconsideration on those relationships in management and activities of museums. (3) Museums should be organized through the proper provision of person and equipment of hardware.
This paper analyzes the collaboration between museums and regional organizations for the development educational activities. The result can be given as follows : (1) The collaboration between museums and each regional oganizations are confined to a fundamental collaboration type of "offering of an equipment and facility" and "rental of a document". (2) In future the collaboration between museums and regional organizations are a great demand which seems to be concemed with positively such as "joint enforcement of investigaion and a study" and "activity support by human interchange" . (3) There are includes a problems of such as lack of"in charge of stuff" and "an activity budget" Considering that these problems shall be prioritized to be solved, it is necessary for the museum to stimulate the 'active participation' of residents in order to get more visitors or palticipants.
The using condition of two-wheelers in Taiwan was investigated by means of documentary records and fixed-point observation. As the results, (1) The engine capacity which above 150cc was prohibited for sales from 1979. Therefore, 49cc-150cc of the scooters have been used as popular vehicle. (2)The scooter is overflowed everywhere in the city and has been used as a handy gadget vehicle, which indicate that it was already rooted in the public's lifestyle. It was found that the factor of twainese using condition of two-wheelers have relation with the governmental policy, function of the scooter, and environmental condition.
This study aimed to make a suggestion for the method of design considering whole transfer systems to realize smooth transfer in daily life for physically handicapped persons. Firstly, we gathered problems on the transfer actions by document survey. As a result, tendencies of problems were clarified. But past researches were deficient in case of trouble and understandings in the actual conditions. So secondly, we had interviews with the mobility handicapped. As a result, problems of the unique mobility handicapped and men-tal conditions of persons were extracted. Finally, we stated development of this study.
Animals are often drawn for expression of seasonal feeling and a firefly is the lpresentative one in early summerin Japan. The most characteristic of this insect the glow. It is easy to enjoy the show of glow, but difficult to express it realistically. So I gathered up articles concemed with firefly and examined how to represent I will report item by item; historical materials food stuff, tableware, living goods, ornaments and the rest.
This study is a part of projects introducing a townmobility system in Mito Shimoichi in lbaraki prefecture. The result of workshop activities are expected to use for one way presentation as well as for communication-tools among the plural sectors include inhabitants and shop managers. For this purpose, previous research, showed the effect of visual mapping is important. This study is reporting an experiment for visualize mapping method of the result of a survey that prompting intuitional understanding and familiarity using selforganizing maps (SOM).
This study aimed to make a examination and a suggestion for the way "the living system in 2000" as a new design to take against high level aged society, should be. We reseached on consciousness of young persons for the living system in high level aged societyfrom a point of view of the lifestyle in high level aged society. And analyzed the lifestyle in the past houses of the future. We examined the concept of the living system in high level aged society. The clever recognitions of young persons hope the same lifestyle that old socirety hoped too It includes "technology". "nature", "communicatin" and "human like" never be a perfect technological environment. So, "the living system in 2000" must be harmonious sytem of "human nature" and "technology".
We developed 3 kinds of respirable wall surface materials with natural zeolite. This product controls the humidity 3 times of wood, and has the performance to absorb with a chemical material. And this product improves in mold, a mite, a nasty smell problem of the indoor humidity, and is superior in quality maintenance of art works. This study reseaches the evaluation of the function of a construction in a house and of a product design and it uses SD method, and aims to keep the result alive into future improvement and development. In this report, we make the characteristic of a product, SD method questionnaire investigation and the progress clear.
Six villages, towns, and cities in the Tsumari region of Niigata Ptefecture struggle with the problem of depopulation. They are beginning to utilize art to counter this problem. In this region, one result of the slow rate of economic development is that farming village scenery and a great deal of nature remains. Enrichment of the region is being attempted through linking these possessions with art. A new project with a strong public emphasis has bcen begun, This work is an attempt to examine the cultulal aspects of Echigo Tsumaris "Art Necklace Constnlction."
The purpose of this work is to appear the design evaluation and decision in each phase of design process based on the design concept led by a commodity concept. In the first half of this paper, through considering both the definition of these concepts and process of cognition and evaluation, decision, the model how the design concept would lead to the concrete design was examined and made hypothetically. Some problems and consideration of the design evaluation and decision in the design process were shown in the latter half.It is found that standard evaluation by use of design check list table which has crisp evaluation is creative process and makes more significant role than we have ever thought in the process flow of the design evaluation.
Consumers buy products after choosing appropriate ones for their needs. But Consumers' impressions shift by getting complain and trouble as they use the products. If we make improvements in such situation, we have to think about whole process from choosing to using and disposing products, The purpose of this study is to evaluate product characteristics from shifts in consumers' impressions of them, using comparison of pairs based on AIC. As a result, the characteristics of each products and their reasons like shortages of product information or problem of after-service not to depend on products themselves but whole process were obtained.
The perusal information of the homepage is recorded as some Log files by a WWW server. It paid attention to the Access Log file which had information about the perusal in that Log file. Information which can get it from the Access Log is the answer whlch can get it from the person's natural act. It can be thought that a purer answer than the answer that it shows a tendency to ingratiate itself it with the questionnaire form can get it. In this reserch, it was analyzed about that correlation to verify for an Access Log analysis that to be effective in the design evaluation. The homepage of "the Virtual Lunar Development Project" which introduced the class of the product design course of Tsukuba university to the public on Web was used for the reserch object.
The designs of the hospital rooms of Japanese hospice are entirely uniform and unfriendly. In this study the attitude of 522 people toward the interior design of the room are surveyed. As a result, the information for the investigation to categorize the room designs and the development of the variation, together with the common condition of the design, has been in acquisition. However the surveyer failed to reach the step where they can grasp the relationship between the people's conception and the design factors structurally and another survey is mapped out.
Japanese lacquer artist, Sugawara taught lacquer art to Eileen Gray, and influenced her works. But, former writings about him are fragmented and partial. His real name, birthplace, lacquer art activity still remain unclear. This study attempt to clarify his personal history corectly by means of visiting his bereaved family and refering to public document .Following facts become clear. Janualy 29,1884,He was born in Sakata-City, Yamagata Prefecture. His full name is Seizo Sugawara. He accompanied Japanese lacquer artist, Shoka Tujimura to Paris in 1905 or 1906. He taught lacquer art to artists in Paris, and he consistently protected traditional technique of Japanese lacquer art April, 12,1937,he died in Paris.
This thesis investigates into the system of vocational education in Germany. Specifically it inquires as to how the traditional wooden technique is handed down to the yuunger generation. There is a peculiar meister system in Germany, They think that basic handwork is important and the systems of Apprentice, Craftsman, and Master are recognized in public. The main vocational education is done at vocational training schools. Students undertake the job training in companies for three-quarters of a term, which is required for graduation. They take over courses in the remaining term. This thesis presents the system of vocational education in Hesse.
The Chinese furniture style is advanced ground of the furniture culture which influence the furniture design of individual modern ages. Then the individual transfigurati on and development are seen though a Japanese furniture style received Chinese furniture culture. It was received and Chinese hard wood furniture material kept being as Karaki until now. Zelkova was common to both countries and it was used widely as building and the furniture material and cleared that it influenced molding culture in that material.
There are five basic techniques in producing bamboo furniture, of which the most important one is the technique of joining one stalk with another by means of making cuts in them and bending them. This technique was applied to various types of furniture and enabled us to make a wide variety of its designs. It can be said that the techniques of producing bamboo furniture were established in the Song dynasty. From the 17th to the 19th century a lot of pieces of furniture with various designs were produced according to the orders from Westem European countries. Basic styles as the furniture for common Chinese people have been maintained since that time. In Taiwan, producing bam-boo furniture was in its heyday between the 1910's and the 1930's.
Seniors, due to the decline of their physical strength and vigor as they age, encounter barriers in various aspects of their everyday lives and experience much inconvenience. In our center, research and development of furniture for seniors has been performed. with an aim to provide them with the products which support an independent daily life style. This time a case study of the development of a rocking chair with a rehabilitaive effect, and a stool for face washing, will be repored.
There are number of wooden furniture industries have renowned their names for their delicate craftmanship in the design and the making of furniture in Japan. In order to investigate tha regional characteristic of the wooden furniture industries in Fukuoka prefecture, I have conducted interviews with the staff from each company. According to my research, there are over 120 companies in Fukuoka area. Over 80% of them produce wooden furniture specially for commercial premises, shop and restaurant. About 90% of the company operate in " made to order" system and 78% of the furniture companies only concentrate on the manufacturing and production.
To study adhesive properties of Urushi glue, adhesive strength and drying time were measured mixing some powder with Urushi , The results showed good performances when buckheat flour or wheat flour were mixed 20-30%, and drying on 8week or more, in both normal and waterproof condition for adhesive strength were good. And we experimentally made laminated lumber with the mixed Urushi glue, and the lumber was available for potter's wheel processing.
The purpose of this study is to develop the drying system for bedclothes.There are few chances to have bedclothes dried by sunshine in snowy districts like Akita, especially in winter. This is a proposal on the new drying system that works with fewer energy, keeping our customs to storage bedclothes into a closet everyday. We obtained the practical data for the drying sytem from our investigation into the efficient use of energy from small room heating. It was found that 60W was the proper electricity consumption to have bedclothes for two persons dried before the bedtime.
Auser stores what where, or there are many conditions that it wavers in its mind in the storage part of the system kitchen large space few idea be many case partition be.But, it considers that there is a common point to receive the storage thing of the kind that a user varies in the system kitchen due to the flow of the kitchen work.1 have the storage space which is easy to use by grasping the common point and which is easy to understand thought that it can be designed. Clear the "address"of the storage thing. It is decided that this paper shows it in the front for this purpose to the investigation result of the grade.
In late years, people judge urban structure using sign information at sight and act in the core terminal of unknown where a lot of transportation intersect. In this study, we establish Nagoya station where repaired recently, decide the sign information as study object. We examine about seven characteristics of sign information that classed in three kinds. As a result, the sign information designed which met role, the ceiling hangings type is easy to watch and understand their position immediately, the wall hangings type is much information for grasp the whole.
Urban landscape has complicate and varies space formation elements and grasp space difficulty for human. In late years, people judge urban structure using sign information at sight and act in the core terminal of unknown where a lot of transportation intersects. We cleared sign was important elements in urban space.In this study, we establish JR-Kanazawa station where repaired recently, decide the sign information as study object. We investigated signs on JR-Kanazawa station. We were extracted 103 signs and classified in three types.
The composite structure bridge, born for reducing the cost, has some advantages, construction, earthguake-resistant, and so on. The purpose of this research is to find a new design in this bridge by trying new technology, which is a system of hybrid girder. First, we checked an existence of bridge in case of using a new technology. Secondly, we proved a predominance of the proposing bridge by comparison between proposing bridge and existing bridge. Finally, we examined problems of realization from different angles.
A rehearsal in this study means learning courses to destinations. The study about navigation is closely related to cognitive maps. And rehearsal, memory method, the cognitive map and the navigation behavior on actual streets are also connected to it. In this experiment, We used 54 subjects of men and women. After the subject studies the route with one of 3 rehearsal media (VR walk-through 1,2,3), he does navigation of the route. As a result, the rehearsal with the high viewpoint was profitable for understanding of space. We classified the subjects in 4 types from navigating behaviors in the actual streets and mental maps, and we also considered the relationship between navigation and cognitive maps.
Background and peculiarity of Law for Town-center Regeneration which have enforced in 1998 in Japan was discussed. Since the law enforcement, 89 of Town Management Organizations were established to improve environment and economic vitality of town-center in many local cities. We appeared that the experiences of TCM in U.K. and BID in U.S.A. have made base of this law. Matizukuri Aizu Corp. was formed in 1998.7 as TMO in Aizu-Wakamatsu city. Through of a case study on the TMO, we found out some subjects to be solved : 1 strengthen of staff power for planning and coordination, 2 establishment of the economical foundation, 3 strengthen of propaganda for inhabitants.
In this study, we did investigation about the human gaze action for alley space and considered about a factor to make the gaze action. As a result two factors became clear. First, the element which directs space different from a street, for example, gates, pavement materials, plane shape. Next, the surface of a wall which is an elements keeping continuation of a street. We understood that Balance of this two factor was necessary in order to raise the gaze.