Through the participation of the World Exposition held in Vienna in 1873,the new concept called 'fine arts applied to industry' was introduced into Japan. At first this new concept was translated by using the new word 'Bijutsu'. In 1875,after the closing of exposition, the word 'Koujutsu' took place of the word 'Bijutsu ' to translate the new concept in the Japanese offiicial reports of the Exposition. The article in the official report Number 21 titled "Koujutsu-Hakubutukan-Hieki-Ron" was the translation of the Austrian Official Exposition Report on the Exhibits Group 22. The historical value of this Japanese traslation is to refer officially to the significance of the new concept in the early days of the Meiji Era.
Otto North had unique view on exhibition design in comparison with his contemporaries. In this paper, in order to understand his view, his theoretical contribution to the anew Era exhibition design which was planned by German Werkbund is described. It is argued that especially some debates with W. Lot, one of editor of the journal die Form, well shows his characteristic view on exhibition design. Lastly it is pointed out that his essential attitude to exhibition design can be understood as "audience-centered design."
Maison de Creation is a society of designers established at Osaka in l955. Its activities continued during 23 years and the number of its members amounted to one hundred when it prospered. Its activities took multiple forms. Some members did not only publish their works but also sold them, and taught ordinary people in its educational courses. The main object of its activities changed from the design of article to that of environment following the current of the times. But its activities were always based on the standpoint of the general public.
This study considers the editorial policy in The Studio at the beginning by the investigation the composition of the page space and the subjects. There are two characteristic types in the main articles of the magazine. One is the article, for example articles on a sketch, as a textbook for the people like art students or amature artists. The other is the article on applied arts in a wide range of subjects. And the articles that have a lot of page space are in a similar situation. These facts suggested that the editorial policy of The Studio at the begnning was the enlightenment of the philosophy of the Arts and Crafts and the suport for the art work of the readers.
Ernest F. Fenollosa (1853〜1908), born in Salem Massachusetts, visited the Centennial Exhibition of 1876,and worte his dairy of visitng the Exhibition. His description was detailed on his behaiors for the days. In this report his discription of the diary was traced on the ground plan of the Centennial Exhibition and a floor plan of the buildings, especially the Main Buildinge, and was checked on exhibits and displays by photograph and illustrations. After these works we could know clearer his behavior on the discription and the Centennial Exhibition. Also we could know his visit the Japanese section three times in the two days and might pass the side of the section in the Main Building on the rest of the days.
Peter Behrens, who changed his carrier from a painter of Munchen Secession to a graphic designer of Jugend Style, and to a craft designer, became one of the seven artists invited to the Darmstadt Artist Colony through his success. He got here a golden opportunity for the construction of a private house its interior design to realize the unification of design focusing on the combination among genre of art, between daily life and art, rather than the individual work. His House was obviously differant from the House, which was designed by Josef Maria Olbrich. The feeling of Behrens, who admires Nietzsche, a German thinker in the end of the 19th century, and his will to create an aesthetic existance culture in mordern Gernamy were reflected in this House.
Prof. Dr. Kotaro Honda invented KS Magnet Steel in 1916,which was the then strongest magnet steel. Honda, since 1931,induced researchers of the Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals(RIISOM) and the National Industrial Art Research Institute(NIARI) for joint study meetings in order to put academic research results into applications for industrial art products. Honda developed small magnetic attracters and obtained four utility model rights for such products in 1932. The RIISOM and the NIARI jointly supported the establishment of Tohoku Kogei Co., Ltd. to have industrial KS Magnet Steel art products distributed in 1933. Some of those products, photos of them and catalogues remain at Tohoku Kogei.
The purpose of this study is to prove Japonism which broke out in the West 19 centuries in the latter half from the commercial side. Today, though a study of Japonism is examined the side of the fine arts history and the mechanism of the form of Japanese traditional art works, this research isn't sufficient except for the society background and the economical side. This description verifies the extensive penetration of the culture of Japan based on the establishment in the modern industry society coming into being at that time. On that occasion, we study a case about the advancement into the West of the Japanese enterprise and about a foreign enterprise used Japonism for the business through the international exposition held in Meiji term.
Tobacco and smoking first emerged in domestic historical records during the Keicho period (1596-1615). Though the Shogunate at first prohibited tobacco cultivation as well as the manufacture and sale of tobacco products, those efforts were not effective. Tobacco cultivation and production eventually spread from the Kinai area throughout the country and, by the mid 17th century, merchants who produced and sold shredded tobacco leaf began to appear. In this paper, I seek to clarify the signboards displayed by tobacco shops in the Kinai area.
Kuwasawa Yoko designed a uniform for the Serviceman of NISSEKI in 1969. It has an important meaning as one of designer activity of Kuwasawa. At first, Kuwasawa picks a questionnaire of 1OOO persons concerned. As a result she designed under four policies a sales uniform for sale promotion, the uniform that can wear everybody anywhere, which to unify the appearance, that is the best quality by a the best design. Next she did fact-finding and business analysis, and a design and the material, a color reflected the result. The uniform which Kuwasawa designed deserves attention with a point designed as representation of corporation identity using a method of industrial design on the that basis of design survey.
An case of cooperation in the field of early modern design between a museum, a designer and local workshops was the City of Hamburg Hall at the First International Exposition for Modern Decorative Arts held at Turin, April to November 1902,the result of promotion of local work by the Hamburg Museum for Arts and Crafts. The Hall interiors as well as works of crafts were designed mainly by Peter Behrens, who aimed to avoid the then- common bazaar form of display. He made an integrated presentation in which all the components followed a unified design concept. Examples of panels, benches and sculpture followed one integrated design, showing a method to achieve unity in a display that signaled a new phase in decorative art.
When the origin of Art Nouveau is described, we will mention to name of Siegfried Bing. His first half life is as well known as Japonist. He opened a shop of L'Art Nouveau at Paris in 1895. Because nationalism was superior in those days, as for the exhibition mainly on foreign new arts, the reputation was bad. He changed a policy of the exhibition. In addition, he installed few ateliers in order to let works reflect his intention. At the time of Paris Exhibition 1900,he established Pavillon de L'Art Nouveau Bing. The interior by de Feure expressed the elegant style based on French tradition. His Pavillon was successful, but the his business was not able to be successful.
ONCE museum can touch all works and exhibition things. Therefore, even if a visually impaired person visits alone, fine-arts appreciation can be enjoyed, and the contents of exhibition are considered that it can deepen the knowledge about history culture. Moreover, activity of artists with the vision handicap of Spain and foreign countries was supported here, and it was founded for the purpose of advocating an understanding to a visually impaired person, admission, and equality. To people with a handicap, equipment and the exhibition method of this museum, and the method of information offer are fully considered, and are designed. Therefore, it is not only a visually impaired person but the environment which is easy to use also for a child and an old man, i.e., all people, also for a wheelchair user, and is easy to appreciate here. The integration in a true meaning and barrier-free are aimed at.
This research is aimed at creating an abstraction of the visually impaired lifestyle environment design condition. Literature and interview investigation in regard to the everyday limitations of the lifestyle activities of the visually impaired was gatheredand analyzed, the validity of the relationship between sensory information other than visual and lifestyle activities and special environmental characteristics was examined. As a result, in relation to the nature of environmental components and environmental contents; the type, use, and direction, and in terms of change in amount, weight, and tool operation the validity of auditory information was predicted. In the event that sudden danger can't be evaded or predicted, environmental difficulty was predicted.
Environmental design which supports worthwhile aged lifestyle was proposed in a model and divisional graph. The model consists of 3 main elements; lifestyle purpose, the objective of achieving that lifestyle, and the action by which that lifestyle can be created. The divisional graph consists of two major axes; the objective axis (containing the public service field and the personal interests field), and the activity axis (containing the individual activity field and the group activity field). As expressed in the model, these fields overlap forming 4main categories; belonging, co-existance, independence, and interchange. By applying current worthwhile lifestyle activities to the model their functions in terms of the graph's fields can be validated.
In this study, a tendency of consumption activity of Japanese and Chinese was considered from literature on this subject. Further we had a questionnaire survey to Japanese and Chinese, especially in Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Shanghai, which is concerned with how to choose electric products and life outfits. The result of our survey clearly shows that Japanese activity of consumption is influenced by price, functionality and quality of product and that Chinese activity of consumption is influence by brand, functionality, and quality of it. Furthermore we suggest what product should be in Japanese and Chinese market.
Scooters play a big role as a means of transportation on which supports life in Taiwan. In order to understand the actual utilization and condition of scooters, a questionnaire survey and observation were done in Kaoshung city. By the viewpoint of human, product, and environment, it was found that scooters were developed because of the interaction among those three factors when considering it from a system of utilization actual condition of human, product and environment, for example, the cost, parking space, protective policy, fuel expense and upkeep. And, it found that scooters were developed as a result of the interaction among human, product and environment in Taiwan.
This study aims to further understand the audible information that the visually impaired ranging from children to the elderly perceive, the means by which they use this information in the course of their daily lives, and the ways in which universal playthings can aid in processing such information. A model has been constructed which categorizes the audible elements that such a user might encounter in everday life in terms of the function that they represent to the user in the following 4 categories; sounds that the subject chooses to hear, sounds from other people, sounds created by objects, and natural environmental sounds. This model is an important first step in developing a universal plaything which can support a functional healthy lifestyle for its user.
In this paper, problems of the correspondence of the museum to the barrier-free was grasped and examined. As the result, four problems were clarified. (1) At present, many barriers exist for the visually handicapped in the museum. The correspondence will be strengthened in future. (2) The barrier-free of "information" has considerably been retarded from the barrier-free of "transfer" in the correspondence. Communication and information service in the museum are very important, and the correspondence is urgent. (3) It is necessary that grasps and solves the barrier in the museum by the installation of the expert committee. (4) It is necessary that improve of the consciousness for barrier-free of the staff in order to execute the barrier-free of the museum.
Gift is a kind of thing that are representing the manners and to be a mediation to connect the people. This research based on the investigation of actual situation by field survey according to the gift exchange activities in Taiwan. As the result, people send someone a gift in various situations to communicate their feelings or realize their purposes to be completed more than just a language. These activities showed the formation of gift exchange culture. Actually, the people conscious; conscious of give, conscious of receive, and conscious of reward; have changed from generation to generation, but the main concept of communicating the people's feeling by the gift exchange activities have still exist in Taiwan.
The purpose of this study is to explore the process of an endogenous regional development in Okuhami area - a depopulated area with 14 houses. Based on the results of the previous design survey in Okuhamiduring three years, we carried out hearing interviews with the president of the residents' association and ladies' society members and sent out questionnaires to all the houses. As a result, we drew an 'Eco-museum map of Okuhami' and the process of the endogenous regional development, starting with a 'small population, few things and abandonment' and later developing with the following stages : 'an inspection of the regional resources', 'picking out the values', 'escalating recognition of the values', 'activities for revitalization', 'creation of the residents' pride with their own region and establishment of the residents' independence'.
The object of this study is to verify the reason for living for the Mishima-machi's seniors who are directly related to making household items and other crafts out of nearby natural resources. Being busy is a pleasure that makes their lives worth living. This knowledge is gathered through interviews and questionnaires. Throughout the investigation, these seniors show that being active improves their health, self-identity, interpersonal communication, and their awareness of nature. The ability to acquire these things is a pleasure in life. Having pleasure in life makes living so much more worthwhile. In conclusion, we are proving that through taking part in making useful items positively contributes to Mishima-machi's seniors appeal to live.
The objective of this study is to analyze the change of the times in persimmon tannin dyeing culture regarding the correlation with the regional life style of Jeju Island. The results of this research are as follows; 1)The daily working clothing culture in Jeju Island is based on 'Galot' which are dyed with persimmon tannin. There is wisdom of the common people in Jeju Island's clothing culture that is forming an ecological circulation type system and doing through the year-round life cycle. 2)This study propose a guide to the renaissance of persimmon tannin dyeing culture in Jeju Island. The guide contains making an ecological living environment, forming an atmosphere of learning regional tradition and building the regional community based on traditional culture.
Design process can be represented as a conversion process from keywords on design objective to physical form of it. From this viewpoint, idea sketches give us important clue to know what is the structure of creative thinking process. For this purpose, an experiment was held to know how the subjects created different images of design objects from different keywords. Five groups of subjects were assigned different tasks to design of streetlight with different keywords. From the results, we concluded that, in design process, designer took several abstraction levels of thinking way depending on the keywords. If the keyword gave designer a suitable abstraction level thinking, the possibility to get creative design would be improved.
We had two experiments to know how creative thinking was done. Firstly, a design task was assigned with two keywords of different difficulties in form making. As the result, designer seemed to change his thinking way depending on the difficulties of keywords in design process. Secondly, we assigned a task of "Design a chair which makes feel sad". As the result, different paths in a thinking way were shown. One was using metaphors of sad feeling and the other was using metaphors of concept of sadness. Most of creative results were seen in the former case. From these results, we concluded that the creative thinking required high level abstraction which had long thinking path with effort of thinking in drawings.
The purpose of this study is combination technique of the preference ruducts and exclusion of the non-preference reducts for development of new products. Several preferred and non-preferred products are chosen by consumer, and the ruducts are calculated by the impression of the form. Then, we combined the ruducts for improvement of possibility that it is preferred. As a result of combination, we could get 2944 combined reducts from 156 preference reducts. As a result of research, 1004 combined reducts included non-preference reducts, and 1940 combined reducts had the possibility that non-preference reducts are contained.
We advanced this research with other research to apply reducts to design development. At first, reducts for choice and reject were defined by analyzing data of cars which one subject selected from 67 sample cars, and data of each car's attribution of forms. Then, we ordered designers car styling design, which the subject will choose. Shown data were only choice/reject and 67cars' pictures. Analysis of these design proposals by the same attribution of forms showed that many of the same reducts for choice existed in them, and the same reducts for reject did not exist practically. Consequently, this suggests that application of reducts in rough set theory is useful and efficient for various stages of design development.
Reduts in rough set theory was used as the new trial in this research. As a case, we designed 24 kinds of interface for a ticket vending machine. And, we made 12 subjects evaluate them about "the easiness to use", "the easiness to understand", and "time". Reducts of the good evaluation about each of three items were defined by rough set theory. We thought that combination of these reducts would be efficient design answer for developing the machine, on the basis of the hypothesis, we got three kinds of design answer.
I study new designing system for the children by the profiling analysis. I investigate about the relevance of growth of children and the role of intellectual training toys. I catch widely the environment surrounding them and carry out new classification. It enable them to playing toys in safety. This research is for the children who play more and study.
As for the house, the length of high durability and longevity is generally demanded. However, even if the house on the structure lasts long, the house receives going out of use when the design is transitory, and the living person gets tired. Then, the purpose of this research is to request the requirement for the long life design for the house exterior does not go out of use and it lasts long. The requirement for the long life design was requested by analyzing the questionnaire survey. And the investigation method were score putting of long life on exterior design in sample photograph in house and filling in of comment on them. As a result of the analysis, a concrete requirement for a long life of the house was able to be classified into two items "Harmony with an average street" and "Design based on the design intention" roughly dividing.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the policy of Chinese home electrical appliances manufacturers concerning the design and the current state of out-sourcing in relation to design management. Accordingly, this work focuses on the directionality of the industrial design industry of China. In this order, five typical home electric appliances makers in China were selected for the investigation. As a result of this survey, it has been understood that the design policy exhibited by Chinese manufacturers can be classified as one of the three following sorts : affiliation, out-sourcing, in-house design department. However, it was further understood that design management becomes complex, and it might be brought along branding strategy.
We will have to aim at design development with the vanacular elements how we aproach products in the future. We researched the image that we entetain against products and events, and analyzed these data by using the curve rate for comparing with resemble each other in form in this study. In the result, the warmth view of mental and material portion, we found a hypothesis that there is common estimation in the expression of the simple shape. We supposed that this also means forms influence to our culture.
This study is a basic investigation of the familiarity of the product. What do we watch and think when we buy some products? Then, what is hindden in our consideration? And how dose the product influence us? We expect to be some relation between the product and the people. And then we investigated into the familiarity of the product by the questionnaire. As the result of the analysis, we found a relation between the product and the people. We will call this "the life style degrees". We imagine that every product has the meaning of the life style behind. The meaning makes the product to the cultural one.
The standard of evaluation of a design -- each man -- it differs greatly and is various Although various elements, such as taste for every individual and a difference in sensitivity, could be considered as the factor, "the level of the amount of preliminary knowledge about the candidate for evaluation" thought also in it that big weight would be occupied. The amount of knowledge about each people's candidate for evaluation (knowledge level) is investigated, and this research considers [how evaluation of a design changes with these, ] both correspondence relation. Consequently, it turns out that the standards which evaluate a design differ greatly according to the amount of preliminary knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to find out the differences of imagination between Generations by a research of word and visual image, through keyword "Zakka-like". This study is based on the hypothesis, that things which become familiar in childhood, have an influence on the formation of the imagination of "Zakka-like". A research about the imagination of "Zakka" by word and visual image to wide range of Generations show differences of imagination between Generations. And this suggested differences in factor for imagination between Generations.
This research makes a presentation an example and is performing the systems configuration for using network environment in recent years effectively. All participants that are present in the place of a presentation can evaluate a presenter's proposal, on real time. And, an presenter can recognize participant's evaluation in real time, too. The closed Internet space was built and the evaluation experiment was conducted with this tool. It was successful to obtain serial evaluation from two or more evaluators. Although the error was looked at by data when seeing from a strict viewpoint, the coincidence nature of 5 stage evaluations and questionnaire evaluation which are an old theory was also checked.
World Wide Web is one of the interactive systems. We adopted subjective evaluation and usability testing as a general method of usability evaluation, to evaluate Web sites by real users who use one. And, we tried to clear the reason of evaluation results, using eye tracking as biological information. We combine these methods effectively, so we can indicate abilities to pick up problems and to predict efficiency by solving the problems.
There are various subjects in the way of proceeding with the design which the usability evaluation of the general-purpose software and that result were used for.Usability puts a subject about the way of evaluating it together, and some proposals are done about the way of evaluating it with the usability evaluation process with actually practicing the usability evaluation of the software.I proposed this time, "The evaluation by two inspection people" is named "Collaborate Inspection method" as an effective evaluation technique.
The fundamental requiremnets for designing of the hospital rooms of hospice have been surveyed. In this process it was found that the corraboration between people(patients and their family)and hospice's staffs is very important.And aquestionnaire survey to ask the opinions of the hospice's staffs was enforced. An opinions of hospice's staff for the interior design of the hospice could know. As a result, 1)Recenyly the interior of yhe hospital rooms changed warmand gentle like the bedrooms of resort hotels.2)As for the man agement and maintenance, single rooms are desireble.3)Many problems are fond out for examples, haw to meet the various need of patients on the interior design and how to cope them with the conditions for the manegemant, so on.
The design concept has been used confounding it with the commodity concept or the product concept because it has been not defined well yet. The purpose of this work is to try defining the design concept of Product design with referring to the definition by K. Sugiyama about Bridge design. In the first half of this paper, problems of the definition by him have been examined and considered from a view of Product design. It is found that viewpoints of time, added value, marketing and technology trend are necessary for the new definition. The extension of the definition was much considered by use of these viewpoints in the latter half. The accurate direction of the new definition of the design concept has been obtained from the consideration.
Now, the mainstream of fixed quantity investigation is a questionnaire. However, while the information technology progresses, a questionnaire thinks that it does not progress. Now, a time is a network time. A questionnaire must also change now. Then, what was considered is the questionnaire method to which the visual effect was made to add. It is thought that a respondent's ideal is approached by this questionnaire method.
What thing the mobile information apparatus of the next generation become? The demand of the user to mobile information apparatus was regarded as a key which knows that. So, questionnaires were carried out and the user demands about "carrying", "function", "communication", "operation" and "contents" were investigated. The result, it became clear that a card type, a function-customization type, etc are demands of users. And, the following three points were proposed as a concept of the next generation mobile information apparatus. (1)Customization of the function by the combination of a part. (2)Realization of communication existence of a partner is in sight. (3)Realization of the system which can obtain surrounding environment information.
This paper revolves around the cognitive-psychological modeling which reflects decision making process when the consumer buy cars. This cognitive-psychological modeling used neural network models. Consumer's decision making process had consumer's checking points of three steps. First step) making shopping list, Second step) narrow down choices of merchandises, Third step) decision make buying car Consumer's checking points of three steps had many fascinating factors of merchandise. The result of a interview survey and a questionnaire survey concerned with the consumer's decision making process of three steps when the consumer buy cars.
An open & close signs of elevator door are often mistaken thought it is used every day. Recognizability of the 6 signs usually being used was evaluated through the usability test. The data that got it from the experiment were subjective evaluation of testees, task error data, and reaction time. It was found out that arrow-mark based signs make many errors and its reaction time is long, too more than letter-based signs, from the result of analysis. Especially, the recognizability of triangle arrow sign was most improper. The best recognizable sign was English letter based sign as an experiment results. The result from objective data corresponds with the subjective data.
In the Japanese furniture style, which accepted a classical Chinese furniture culture, its own transfiguration and development can be seen. In order to make a comparative study of Japanese culture of legless chairs and Chinese ones, we have mainly surveyed a stool named Deng. In the result of the survey, we have proven that the origin of Deng was Zu (a utensil of ceremony). Moreover, we have found Deng and Japanese bath stools have many points in common.
Karuizawa-bori Carving has been producted for about one hundred years from late Meiji period. And also, Karuizawa has been developed as summer resort for foreigners from middle Meiji period. Karuizawa-bori carving was created to meet demand for the western furniture used usually by foreigners in Karuizawa, and at fast the wood carving was affected by Nikko-bori Carving with old tradition. The wood carving furnitures wuth design of cherry blossoms have received favors as the original summer resort furniture from a great many of forreigners. Now, about forty crafts are engaged in production. Karuizawa-bori carving was recogniged as the traditional industrial Arts by the Nagano Governor in 1983.
Platform sandals were in fashion in the seventies in Japan. Recently, many accidents such as falling down and traffic accidents have been caused by these sandals. In the present study, the effects of platform sandals on humans were examined in the following experiments : 1) Walking on a flat surface, 2) walking up and down the staircase, 3) driving a car. Six different types of platform sandals were used. Electromyogram was measured in the walking experiments. Subjective ratings were obtained regarding walking or driving. The difference in height between toe and hee1 seemed to be more important than thickness of shoe sole. Design for platform sandals are being investigated from the viewpoint of walking function of humans and gender.