In the context of graphic user interface design, the affordance concept remains undeveloped and requires further investigation. This study explored whether, according to the affordance concept, the interaction between users and virtual buttons corresponds to the relationship between animals and their surroundings. This study used graphic user interfaces with three types of virtual button as test samples and observed users to determine whether they could intuitively perceive affordances and make practical decisions about operability. The results show that the users could perceive affordances for operability presented by the virtual buttons, and could intuitively understand which operations were appropriate based on the size of each button. These results contend that the applicability of the affordance concept to GUI design is appropriate and that further research on the concept of affordance in human-computer interaction is necessary.
Both internal and external factors are contributing to the complexity of the driving environment. Traffic conditions, sophisticated car management systems, ubiquitous communication devices, and so on demand increased levels of visual and cognitive attention from drivers. Despite this, modern in-car information displays increasingly more and more information. As a result, the displays are cluttered and distracting, negatively influencing the driving performance. To address these distractions, this research investigates the potential of displaying and delivering information in driver's peripheral vision via peripheral vision interface in a driving environment. Experimental findings suggest some benefits of implementation of such an information interface. However, the driver's perception of information presented by a peripheral vision interface is reduced due to cognitive load and optic flow generated while driving. The driver's perception varies depending on type of visual stimuli used to display information. The results are discussed and possible further developments are proposed.
The smart mobile integrated solution design process has been explored and maturing in diverse projects worldwide in both traditional manufacturers and service companies for the past ten years. This paper proposed a pre-study of eight smart mobile integrated solution design process models based on case studies of smart phone and tablet by in-depth interviews of product managers about the design events and process flow from the beginning of the project, through ID, hardware, UI and software design and development, to production and release. A general design process model of four stages was constructed based on key design decision meeting and three general design process categories were created based on product plan type and decision maker: Independent research and design process, carrier biding oriented and carrier proposal oriented design process. Different design events in the divided four stages among the three categories were compared and described. Finally, a further study of the independent research and design process was carried out to construct sub-categories of design process models: product oriented and service oriented smart mobile integrated solution design process.
Design for smart mobile integrated solution design is complex, as it requires striking a balance among research, interactive, UI, ID design, and technology feasibility and a good coordination between hardware, software design and development in the design process. A clarification of the design process flow, events and participants involved in each phase is needed. This paper proposed a service oriented smart mobile integrated solution design process model with 8 sub-process: solution proposition process, solution design theme creation process, use case creation process, UI specification proposal process, UI and ID proposal process, hardware and software development process, hardware and software joint test process, and usability test process. The goal, difficulty, research, ID, UI, hardware, software design and development events, related design methods, and participants of every sub-design process were further discussed and described in the design case, the WAWA smart mobile integrated solution for children and parents, to illustrate the application and efficiency of the service oriented design process model. A reflection of the process and improvement suggestions were discussed at the end of this paper based on feedback from usability test and interviews of team members involved.
A method for digital archiving of art objects using a multispectral reflection model is proposed. The device consists of a lighting system, goniometric rotating arms, and a vision system with a two-shot six-band camera. Parameters are derived from the multiband camera with an optical filter and a device that measures the distribution of light reflection intensity on an object's surface. For digital archiving and computer graphics rendering, multispectral reflection properties of the object are estimated from goniospectral measurements. Multiple images of the object's surface are acquired at different illumination and viewing directions. Under the same conditions, reflection model parameters are estimated from sensor measurements of the reflection intensity of the object's surface. Finally, we rendered a realistic image of the object and visually confirmed the validity of the proposed method.
With growing demand of planting vegetables at home in China, home plant factory presents huge development potential and broad market prospect. In this paper, a new technology of plant factory for home use was described in this research. This technology is an improvement of conventional aeroponics and it cannot only help grow vegetables easily and quickly, but also requires less water and energy than conventional hydroponics. In the research，the UNPF (Ultrasonic Nebulizer Plant Factory) was compared with conventional hydroponics in the environment of indoor, and to discuss the technology application of the UNPF for the design of home plant factory. It was found that the Potherb Mustard and Lettuce grew better in UNPF than in control group. The growth of the Potherb Mustard expressed by plant longest leaf length and the number of leaves and dry weight was significantly affected by the culture system used. The Leaf number and the Dry weight of Lettuce had significant difference between the two systems. By taking comprehensive view of experiment result, we can see that the growth efficiency of vegetables in UNPF was better than conventional hydroponics. This technology brings innovative feature to plant factory and inspiration for designers because the design of plant factory are no more limited by the tank in the bottom, theoretically UNPF can be designed with any performance, such as round, spiral and column. The new technique brings innovative feature to plant factory and inspiration for designers.
This paper discusses China's home plant factory market segmentation with two main objectives. First, this study defines the target users whose customer value might be compatible with home plant factories' characteristics. Second, it classifies those target users in order to help designers understand their attributes and provide specific design directions for them. A questionnaire survey using a Likert scale was conducted on a sample of Chinese customers, whose values were identified by analyzing their attitudes to the home plant factory through factor analysis. The following five factors were extracted: "Quality of vegetables," "Quality of life," "Value added," "Technology," and "Extra consumption." The respondents were categorized into four groups according to the factor scores: "Convenient life,' "Economical life," "Conservative life," and "Healthy life." The Convenient and Healthy life groups were thus determined to be home plant factories' target users. Their attributes were then discussed and appropriate design directions suggested.
The purpose of study was to reveal the relation between users' life style and their preference for the packages of organic soy sauce, using data mining techniques. Fifty-six adults in their 20s to 60s answered about the life style and judged whether they wanted to buy representative samples of the current market. As a result, independently of the purchase frequency of organic foods, all participants liked the luxury ornamental package. On the other hand, there were some samples showing the contrast of preference between the core users and not-buy people. A decision tree analysis and a market basket analysis revealed rules to show who wanted to buy the samples. It was the package using green color as a code of organic foods that people who pay attention to package design wanted to buy. The package for next purchasers, that for housekeepers, and that for knowledgeable individuals were also revealed. The present study revealed 6 suggestions for new package design of the organic soy sauces.
This research aims to discuss the design, development and marketing strategies of the Taiwan indigenous cultural products by studying "Dragonfly Beads Art Studio" , a studio located in Sandimen Township of Pingtung County. First of all, this research has, through a literature analysis and discussion as well as an in-depth survey investigation, conducted an analysis of the cultural product design characteristics. Then, based on the methods of grounded theory, this research has found out important coding to summarize strategic factors for the design and development of cultural products and industry operations. Finally, this research has, through a SWOT cross-matrix analysis, analyzed and summarized a strategic approach for the product design and development or industry operations as a way to reach the research goals. The research results indicate that: (1) the basic components of the indigenous cultural product design are "applications of the local cultural design" and "factors of the cultural product design" based on the coding analysis. Besides, the "innovative research and development thinking" and "applications of complex materials" can also be applied to reach the goal of developing product innovations; (2) the studio is good not only at applying unique totems and signs in the development of cultural product design, but also at inheriting the indigenous culture, arts and workmanship through these products; (3) through the SWOT cross matrix analysis and the assessment of identifying strategic factors, this paper has summarized three special factors, which can be used as a reference for the studio in terms of product design and development or industrial and operational strategies.
Specialization and professionalization of design work make it difficult for members of a product development team to share product information with each other. Previously we proposed the Multispace Quality Function Deployment (M-QFD), which allows designers to extract design elements with respect to diverse requirements and to understand their relationships, on the basis of the Multispace Design Model and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM). This study improves M-QFD using the Design Structure Matrix (DSM). Benefits of the DSM include: 1) excluding indirect relationships, which prevents generating one huge chunk of design elements, 2) incorporating designers' opinions, and 3) considering several types of the relationships. The improved M-QFD enables modular composition of product components to be constructed in the late process of design. Additionally, a design example (design of an automotive steering system) is presented to demonstrate the improved M-QFD.
This article argues that design can improve alienated interpersonal relationships. An exploratory survey of the literature and products indicates that a number of ancient and modern works of drinking vessels can promote human interaction and co-use. However, these products have yet to receive attention or be classified. We define this as "Human Interaction Design" (HID). In this study, we used a multi-case study to conduct a systematic comparison and analysis of Taiwanese drinking vessels. This study indicates that the HID design pieces can be divided into the categories of "Passive" and "Active" HID. Moreover, active HID pieces usually have the following features in common: 1. they have special forms; 2.they exhibit functional disruption; 3. they induce mindfulness; 4. they can be used by a number of people simultaneously; and 5. they require interaction to compensate for functional problems or achieve some kind of meaning. These features can be referenced in design. Active HID does not focus on artistic appearances, aesthetic values, and ease of use in life. However, it can actively promote behavioral patterns of interaction among people. An interesting characteristic of HID is that it can provide people with conversation topics, thereby improving the phenomenon of interpersonal alienation.
In recent years, people sitting for many hours have some problems: pressure ulcer, congestion and etc. This study aims to clarify the optimal cushion and back angles to prevent these diseases by measuring the changes in lower limb blood flow in the cushion and back angles. The result shows the shear and compressive forces between the buttock and the seat, fluctuated by the cushion and back angles, affect the blood flow. This study also derives the optimal angles by the weighting factor method using the contribution ratio of these forces in blood flow as the weighting factors. Additionally, this study confirms the validity of the contribution ratios and the derived optimal angles. The result indicates a proportional relationship between the blood flow and the weighted sums of the forces, calculated using the contribution ratios, and the highest blood flow measured with the derived optimal angles.
In the rapidly changing industrial environment, creative lifestyle industries (CLIs) have attained sustainable devlopment through continuous service innovation. Therefore, introducing service design (SD) has become a vital principle of service innovation for CLIs. The objectives of this study were as follows: (a) Develop the SD conceptual structure of CLIs, and (b) establish primary evaluation criteria and evaluation sub-criteria for the SD of CLIs through case studies. According to the research findings, the SD conceptual structure of CLIs comprises the following four dimensions: (a) exploration, (b) creation, (c) prototype, and (d) delivery. The primary evaluation criteria comprised 16 items, including business theory, service system, education activities, style asthetics, and experience clues. These 16 primary evaluation criteria were further classified into 70 evaluation sub-criteria.