The number of high school students who claim to dislike physics is increasing in Japan. This trend has been observed not only for students whose major is Civilization, Literature and so on, but also for freshmen in Science and Engineering. This trend affects the process of designing besic programs for physics teaching to lower year students at university. In order to find a reason why this trend is expanding into a wide range of the young generation. We conducted a survey on the reasons why physics id disliked by first-year students, after they have completed the subject"Physics Experiments ?". It has been pointed out that the main reason is the entrance exam for university. However, another reason is made clears by the presend study, Which is the students'motivation for studying physics. The motivation is depends largely on the teacher and way of teaching at high school. The investigation is conducted through a questionnaire for freshmen who have graduated from either public or private high schools. Differences in ways of teaching between both high schools are pointed out.
Lakoff and Johnson (1980, p.56) claim that most of our normal conceptual system is metaphorically structured; that is, most concepts are partially understood in terms of other concepts. From this viewpoint, metaphorical aspects of children's naive conceptions, concepts and models of science, and science classes are reconsidered. Models of science plays a central role in scientific theory. There are basic metaphorical ideas behind each scientific model. But learners of science may have naive conceptions that are based on different metaphoric ideas from those of the scientists. Learning science therefore necessarily involves getting new metaphoric ideas or modifying one's own metaphoric ideas. The necessity for research based on metaphor is pointed out. Some important proposals for science classes are also made.
The organisation or institutionalization of scientific and technical education in England began with some external and internal factrs as brought about by continental influences. The author discusses on the organisation or instituitionalization of scientific and technical education in England from 1851 through 1890. After the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, some governmental departments were reorganized to promote elementary education and scientific and technical education. The newly established Department of Science and Art (DSA) provided some grants. Consequently, scientific and technical education was extended during the mid-nineteenth century. However, there were also some factors hampering the promotion of scientific and technical education such as the economic ideas, and the lack of an education system and qualified science teachers. The central government gradually recognized the need to bring the English status of science, technology and education on a par with the other continental countries and, organized some committees for scientific and technical education. Based on the surveys and recommendation by the committees, three important acts which were aimed at promoting scientific and technical education were enacted from 1870 to 1890. However, there were also some debates on modern science teaching styles during the organisation of scientific and technical education.
The aim of this study is to develop an experimental presentation method to change high school students' naive concepts regarding the laws of physics into scientific ones. The apparatus used was designed and constructed to teach students the principles of inertia both visually and auditorily. The subjects were seventy high school students. They were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The subjects in the experimental group (20boys and 23girls) were taught physics using the apparatus, while the subjects in the control group (15boys and 12girls) were taught by the traditional teaching method of lectureing. An achievement test on inertia and a questionnaire on scientific views were administered to them as pretest and posttest. It was found that the experimental group showed more improvement in both the achievement test and the questionnaire than the control group. How the subjects in the experimental group changed their naive concepts into some scientific concepts is also discussed.
A science teaching material video was made into a mosaic video. In the study, subjects watched both the teaching material video and the mosaic video. Subjects' pupil sizes were measured each time. The difference in relative mean pupil size between the teaching material video and the mosaic video is an index of the degree of interest. If the value is positive, the subject takes interest in part of the video. If the value is negative, the subject takes no interest in the part of the video.
There are many field centres to study local environment in Britain. Malham Tarn Field Centre is one of twelve field centres in England and Wales run by the Field Studies Council (FSC), an independent educational charity which promotes"Environmental Understanding for All". The FSC works for this objective in a number of ways: 1) Management of twelve Field Centres in England and Wales whose localities are chosen for ecological richness and diversity of their surroundings. 2) Running short residental field courses at every level, from introductory to specialised, in a wide range of subjects. 3) Providing appropriate subjects and special topics for both adults and children.
The work of compiling a glossary entitled"Chinese Characters in Japanese Mathematical Terms"has been completed as one outcome of the research activity of the Study Group for Language in Mathematics(SGLM). The glossary contains 943 terms, most of which are used in mathematics taught at school in Japan. It aims at helping school teachers and foreign researchers of mathematics education in Japan to understand how the mathematical meaning of each term is derived from its component Chinese characters. We have prepared two versions of the glossary-Japanese and English. The glossary is not commercially published, but the Japanese version is available at cost on MS-WORD (Japanese version) source floppy disk.