Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) was established in 1958 in the U.S. Since the early time of BSCS, BSCS had developed high school biology programs and positioned evolution as the unifying theme in the center of those programs. There have been some previous studies on BSCS in Japan, but those studies have not focused on discussing the first BSCS programs and the teaching of evolution. The authors established two points of analysis as follows; 1) What aims and objectives did BSCS set up for the process of developing programs in early time, 2) What contents did BSCS introduce to the first BSCS programs and why has BSCS recognized evolution as a unifying theme in those programs. The authors have analyzed memorandums and minutes which were circulated among the steering committee members between 1959-63. As a result of our study, we have confirmed that since the establishment of BSCS one of the aims of BSCS was to develop scientific literacy on the part of high school students as future citizens and that BSCS emphasized evolution as the centerpiece of the unifying concepts of the programs, while also recognizing the importance of the nature of science as well as scientific knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to investigate research activities conducted in groups in engineering laboratories and their correlation to the outcomes of these laboratories. In this study, we conducted a random sampling survey of engineering laboratories in universities and collected data from 73 of them. We generated group-level (or laboratory-level) data from individual data of master's degree students and performed multiple regression analysis with the dependent variables of degree of satisfaction, personal progress assessments, and research achievements. The results of the analysis indicate the following: (1) Establishment of individual relationships that help students grasp the significance of their research would lead to students deriving greater satisfaction from their research and improvement of academic communication skills. (2) Formation of subgroups in a laboratory would improve students' knowledge and their academic performance. (3) Sharing the outcome of research activities among laboratory members would lead to increased satisfaction in lab work.
This study aimed to identify the knowledge that experienced science teachers use in lessons. The method used was to show a video-taped lesson to novice and experienced teachers, and then to analyze the taped utterance patterns of a discussion that followed, using verbal protocol analysis. The results demonstrated that the content of statements made during the discussion period were different between novice and experienced teachers both qualitatively and quantitatively. Novice teachers tended to have fewer utterances, and their utterances about the knowledge of teachers in practical situations were focused on "knowledge about teaching strategies." For experienced teachers, a focus on their utterances revealed two groups: one of experienced teachers who spoke about specific teaching methods, showing an abundant "knowledge about teaching strategies," and the other of experienced teachers who made many statements based on knowledge about the "course of teaching," "curriculum," "understanding about pupils," and "evaluation." The results also demonstrated that while novice teachers were able to evaluate a lesson in fragments, they were unable to make a comprehensive evaluation.
By using differently sized foam polystyrene balls with lead weights, a particle model expressing the weight and size of atoms was created. The size of each ball was chosen so that its radius would be approximately 5×10^8 times as large as the radius of a real atom. As for the weight, by removing the inner part of the foam polystyrene near the centre of the ball or by putting a small piece of lead in the ball, each ball was made to be 6×10^<23> times as heavy as a real atom, so that its weight measured in grams was coincident with the atomic mass. The model we developed was used in junior high school science classes, and the responses from the students were positive.
This research investigates the effect of a mock lesson to students on a teacher training course in science. This research attempted to document changes in students' knowledge and concepts about performing a science lesson by using an image mapping test before and after the lecture. An investigation was also made whether important science instruction skills when performing a science lesson were able to be supported by observing other students' mock lesson. The results show that the students could gain confidence, especially concerning instructions for science experiments. In addition, they acquired viewpoints which are required for a teacher, such as safety, conduction a preliminary experiment, and writing on the blackboard.
It is well known that many students have a naive conception of MIF: Motion implies a force. The purpose of this study is to ascertain from which grade in elementary or secondary school students start to develop the naive conception of MIF. The results show that the number of students having a naive conception of MIF increases steadily with age through the lower years. Residual analysis shows that in students above the seventh grade the naive conception of MIF gets stronger.
Gonzalez and Isoda (2011a) proposed variability as one of the key ideas for improving the teaching of statistics as well as for developing statistical literacy for the knowledge-based society. In order to improve, teachers need to understand and teach variability in their mathematics classes. This survey, grounded on the framework of conceptualization of variability proposed by Shaughnessy (2007), selected survey tasks based on previous researches. Through this survey we examined teachers' statistical literacy from the viewpoint of variability and found that, although there are specialized mathematics teachers in junior and senior high school, their achievements were very low; this was also the case with elementary school teachers, who do not have any specialization in mathematics. Based on the survey's results, this paper proposed the necessity of in-service teacher education in statistics.
Lactic acid is often taught as one of representative substances of optical isomers. Poly-lactic acid is also taught as an example of biodegradable plastics. We examined the appropriateness and effectiveness of combining these two topics for high school chemistry. Heating of L-lactic acid produces oligo (L-lactic acid) and the generated oligomer shows a relatively larger optical rotatory polarization than the monomer. The magnitude of the optical rotatory corresponds to the progress of polymerization. The degree of polymerization is determined by neutralization titration which shows a number average molecular weight.
We have been conducting science communication activities at areas affected by the great east Japan earthquake since after the disaster. The primary purpose of previous science communication activities was to improve the scientific literacy of the participants in the activities. Through our activities at areas affected by the disaster, we have been discussing science communication activities designed to help new community building. We conducted a survey of victims who participated in our science communication activities at Rikuzentakata City, Iwate Prefecture, to investigate the relationship between science communication activities and the formation of new communities. The results of the survey showed the following three points. 1) To improve quality of life, participants have a strong willingness of taking part in intellectual and cultural activities. 2) People who have little opportunities to relate with others want to participate in activities to improve the quality of their lives. 3) They recognize science communication activities as an effective way to improve quality of life. From the above, we concluded that there are needs of science communication activities to support new community building at areas affected by the disaster.