The purpose of this study is to reveal how alien species are dealt with in textbooks about living environment studies, science, and biology from elementary to high school. From an analysis of students’ responses in lessons about alien species, possibilities and points to be noted for executing science lessons about biodiversity in elementary school were also examined. As a result, the following three points were identified. (1) The textbooks checked in this study have a total of 126 kinds of alien species, of which 10 are alien invasive species, and 23 are careful invasive species. (2) The textbooks have some description of how to cope with the problem of invasive species for most of alien invasive species; they also and have descriptons suggesting that their multiplication and release are encouraged, wheras there is little description about careful invasive species. (3)There are lessons that we had suggested to the students for proper understanding of alien species, indicating that lessons that encourage understanding of alien species in elementary school are possible. We have to examine opportunities and contents for doing so.
The purpose of this paper is to present a method of making bone specimens in cooperation with a zoo. At the zoo, the veterinarian keeps dead animal specimens refrigerated after autopsies have been performed. The author borrows the specimens and turns them into bone specimens by heating them. During the heating process, it was found useful to put a specimen into a high-density polyethylene (HDPD) bag with water, and to keep the bag in hot water. This use of a HDPD bag helps eliminate malodors and maintains the alignment of the bones. This process has been practiced for eight years in classes at the Graduate School of Education, Ibaraki University. The benefits of the system are that graduate students experience cooperation with a zoo and are able to borrow the specimens after becoming school teachers. For its part, the zoo increases its collection of bone specimens as educational materials. Thus, the zoo, schools, and the graduate school of education effectively constitute a regional system of zoological education.
The present study organized a practical mattress exercise session in an elementary school physical education class, wherein each student was provided with a tablet device. We investigated how the learners utilize the tablets to achieve the lesson’s goal by enabling the learners to select and use available filming and viewing functions installed in the tablets, at their own discretion. The result of a survey asking learners about the effectiveness of the learning activity utilizing tablet devices, together with the record of their activities consisting of videos and observers’ notes, video records, and the learners’ comments, were then analyzed. The results suggest that in a learning program designed to allow learners to select and use available functions and determine their uses themselves, they can select and utilize functions according to the lesson’s contents and purposes.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of animation teaching materials by transformative assessments. We have developed an animation teaching material based on scientific particle models, and used it in practicing “neutralization reaction”. The results of the research suggest the following: (1) Animation materials make students promote the formation of a scientific mental model. However, the first mental model, which is dependent on the context, cannot be used immediately for students’ reasoning; (2) To facilitate students’ reflection of conception, it is necessary to notice the difference between the science model of animation materials and the student’s drawing model.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the science-specific Questioning framework to the level of understanding and retention of scientific concepts. The study developed and implemented the science-specific Questioning framework based on the QUILT framework, which organized a variety of teaching strategies. Specifically, the strategies were: “wait time1”, which aims to encourage thinking activities by a slight latency of questioning, “wait time2”, which aims to encourage thinking activities by a slight latency of answering, “Think-Pair-Share”, which aims to build discussion, and the”puzzling picture” to raise cognitive conflict. The lesson on “change-of-state of a substance” was developed and tested with 138 junior high school students in the 7th grade in order to find out the effect of the questioning framework. As a result, three important points were gathered: 1) There were many positive opinions that both “wait time1”and “wait time2” are necessary.; 2) “Think-Pair-Share” was effective in encouraging viewpoint, understanding, thinking, and cooperating with others.; and 3) The Questioning framework was effective in developing student’s retention of scientific concepts, with the effect still seen one month later.
The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of Rika (School Science) teaching in lower grades in the elementary school attached to Nara Women’s Higher Normal School (NWHNS). The authors made analyses of the following points: the objective of Rika teaching, the methods of Rika teaching, and the practices of Rika teaching in lower grades at NWHNS. As a result, we found that the objective of Rika teaching in lower grades at NWHNS was to cultivate curiosity and a spirit of inquiry for natural and artificial things and phenomena, that Rika was taught as a part of ‘Integrated Learning’ for respecting the relationship between science and other subjects, as well as the development stage of children’s thought and cognition, and that the methods of Rika teaching were to provide teaching materials according to children’s interest and concerns regarding natural and artificial things and phenomena around them. We identified the following characteristics of Rika teaching in lower grades at NWHNS; Rika was taught not as an independent subject but as a part of ‘Integrated Learning’, the objective of Rika teaching can be characterized as being in the affective domain, emphasizing children’s interest and independence in Rika teaching.
In this study a new teaching material was developed for pupils to learn the nature of magnets. This teaching material consisted of metal in powder form, which retains magnetism only when the powder is in the a tree-like structure. In the magnetic field, metal was easily magnetized and the tree-like structure was formed. After the tree-like structure was destroyed, its magnetism was completely lost. This teaching material was tested for third graders (experimental group) in science class of a public elementary school. The same graders (control group) took a conventional lesson in their science class. Analyses of answers to questionnaires, for pupils of both groups revealed the following two points: 1) Pupils in the experimental group had a better understanding of magnetism and magnetization than those in the control group. 2) Pupils in the experimental group had increased interest, inquiring spirit and active learning. It is thus suggested that the new teaching material is useful for pupils to experimentally understand the nature of magnets.
This study analyzed American middle school science textbooks to obtain basic knowledge on instructional strategies for helping students understand data interpretation. The analysis revealed not only details of the process skills, defined in Science- A Process Approach, which are needed to interpret data, but also the following findings: (1) The textbooks lead students to distinguish independent and dependent variables in interpreting data. (2) The textbooks enable students to take human measurement errors and inaccurate data into account. (3) They help students to interpret data after answering stepwise questions that provide them with viewpoints helpful for interpreting data. (4) The textbooks lead students to compare data collected, results observed, and results drawn from graphs through hypotheses formulated in advance. (5) They provide steps for reinterpreting data. (6) The textbooks allow students to use their skills of explanation and inference in data interpretation and help students to understand key concepts (scientific concepts). (7) The textbooks position data interpretation as a preparatory step in drawing a conclusion. (8) Data interpretation serves as a preparatory step for grasping key concepts (scientific concepts). Finally, (9) the textbooks enable students to understand the role of data interpretation.