科学教育研究
Online ISSN : 2188-5338
Print ISSN : 0386-4553
ISSN-L : 0386-4553
41 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の20件中1~20を表示しています
巻頭言
特集 科学教育におけるアクティブ・ラーニング
招待論文
  • 松下 佳代
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 77-84
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    Active learning has been promoted as a key for national educational reform from elementary to higher education for the past few years. However, MEXT is replacing it with the phrase “independent, dialogical, and deep learning” in the new National Course of Study with a view to articulating more clearly the intention of the present reform. We can say the idea of deep active learning advocated by Matsushita et al. (2015) has had some impact on the attention to deep learning by MEXT. The purpose of this paper is to explore deep active learning in science education focusing on the practice and research of conceptual change, which have been trying to combine deep conceptual understanding with dialogue in the classroom. First, we reviewed Hypothesis-Experiment-Instruction as a representative practice of deep active learning in the history of Japanese science education and identified three problems. Then we showed that we can find some solution to them in recent conceptual change research. Finally, by examining several assessment methods related to conceptual change, we proposed that Toulmin’s argument model would be effective to guide and assess the product as well as the process of conceptual change.

研究論文
資料
  • 標葉 靖子, 江間 有沙, 福山 佑樹
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 161-169
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    Tremendous developments in science and technology have brought prosperity and an affluent lifestyle to mankind, but scientific and technological progress has also generated social issues related to the environment, security, ethics, and socioeconomic activities. Under these circumstances, a Science, Technology, and Society (STS) education that emphasizes the teaching of scientific and technological developments in their cultural, economic, social, and political contexts is required in order to cultivate human resources capable of making decisions about how to address these issues. In this study, we developed “nocobon,” a game-based teaching material for thinking on STS issues from various perspectives. “Nocobon” is a detective card game that can be played by a group of three to six people. The results of its prototype test for high school students suggest that players could acquire new knowledge and learn to think from different perspectives on STS issues through unlocking the mysteries in a series of “nocobon” cards. The results also indicate that “nocobon” could be a simple and convenient teaching material from the viewpoint of the time management.

  • 大黒 孝文
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 170-178
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The aim of this study is to develop a manga material which incorporates collaborative learning from the perspective active learning, and to survey its ease of use, effectiveness and whether it helps university students studying to become teachers capture the main points. This study is a pilot study for developing a learning program, Case Method Teaching Materials Using Manga, which cultivates pragmatic skills to teach active learning. The survey revealed that the users positively evaluate the material in terms its ease of use and effectiveness. However, it was found insufficient in facilitating capture of the main points in carrying out collaborative learning. This suggests that capturing the main points in carrying out collaborative learning is difficult if it is attempted through the learners’ reading of the material. Moreover, there is a necessity to modify the materials. The pilot study has therefore shown that we need to devise ways to encourage learners’ reading of the material in order to develop Case Method Teaching Materials Using Manga.

  • 任 良爀, 神田 晃, 真野 博, 根岸 聡美, 松本 直樹, 亀山 こころ, 斉藤 弘樹, 秋元 誠, 荒木 達夫
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 179-192
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    We introduced “active learning” into an experimental practice class, a registered dietitian course at a nutrition college. Active learning was conducted through (1) small group discussions before and after the experiments and (2) a presentation including evaluation of gene diagnosis (students weere to consider its purpose, effectiveness, and privacy protection issues). After the practice students statistically improved their basic knowledge of genetic modification of food materials and food labeling (a test score difference of p<0.05). The number of students who answered “genetic diagnosis is useful” and “I am willing to have genetically modified food” increased statistically (p<0.05). The number of students who answered “I would like to know my genetic characteristics” was statistically correlated with “I think genetic diagnosis is useful.” Students who answered “I am willing to have genetically modified food” were statistically correlated with “Genetically modified food is necessary.” Some students tried an entertaining role-play in their presentation to achieve deeper understanding of genetics and food. Furthermore, many students noticed their “having taken a step forward”, “improvement in critical thought”, and “development of organized teamwork skills” following the practice. These results show that introducing active learning into an experimental practice class is potentially constructive for an enhanced understanding of scientific ideas and generic skills.

  • 大島 崇行, 水落 芳明, 榊原 範久, 八代 一浩, 水越 一貴
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 193-203
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    In classes where students are actively involved in learning, signs of their learning appear in various ways. For this reason, it is presumed that each observer notes different things in their classroom observation. In this research, we developed a classroom observation tool called “edulog.” This tool can accumulate observation records and list all gathered data on one worksheet.6 people observed the classes using the “edulog.” It was suggested that, in a lecture style class, the observers tend to focus more on teaching, whereas in an activity-centered class, their focus is more on the learners; in addition, it was confirmed that observation viewpoints tend to vary. These results revealed that each observer had a different point of view in their observation. The above results indicate that, in classes where students are actively involved in learning, it is required to visualize and share observers’ different viewpoints, as well as the possibility of the “edulog” as a tool to be utilized in such a lesson study. It is also required in future research to develop and examine a new system of lesson study aiming to realize deep active learning.

一般
研究論文
  • 松岡 雅忠, 井上 正之
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 205-212
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by manganese dioxide as a catalyst is one of the most widely used reactions for teaching different concepts of chemistry, such as oxygen generation, catalytic reactions, and reaction stoichiometry. However, the problem of waste minimization of used catalysts is not paid enough attention in educational experiments. This research investigates the effect of a clay block containing manganese dioxide. By using this clay block, it turns out that oxygen is easily collected without downward displacement of water, and an up-and-down motion of the block like “Dancing Raisins” is observed simultaneously. This phenomenon is effective for inquiry-based science as a process, for (a) posing a productive question, (b) teacher-supported brainstorming activities, (c) a written job performance, (d) class presentation and reflection on students’ learning. In addition, clay blocks containing manganese dioxide are easily collected and reused, and thus are effective in green chemistry.

  • 佐藤 美子, 山口 幸雄, 芝原 寛泰
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 213-220
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    Individual experiments based on microscale experiments are an effective method for the improvement of students’ thinking ability. To establish widespread microscale experiments in actual science classrooms from junior high to high school, suitable experimental instruments for electrolysis experiments were developed, characterized by safety, simplified operation and inexpensive cost. We adopted disposable color reaction plates as electrolytic bath, making the most of characteristic microscale experiments and reducing the burdens of teachers involving preparation and clearance. Operation of electrodes using carbon rods was also developed. The present experimental method should make it possible to observe clearly the phenomena, while reaction and execution of the electrolysis for three kinds of electrolyte solution takes place within hours of teaching class in high school chemistry. From a questionnaire and written responses, we found that the present teaching materials using disposable color reaction plates as electrolytic bath have made it possible to stimulate students’ interest and cultivate their scientific ability to think on the basis of individual and short-time experiments.

  • 石川 一樹, 鎌田 正裕
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 221-229
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode and lithium coin-type cells. They were used in a junior high school science class, and it was made clear that our experiment can be used when students learn how the shape of a resistor affects the value of resistance and the electric current passing through it.

  • 小池 守, 鈴木 義直, 栁 俊吾, 倉山 智春, 河崎 雅人, 高津戸 秀
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 230-245
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    In this study, a sundial simulator was developed as a new teaching tool. Our simulator is easily used with Microsoft Excel, based on the contents learned until high-school natural science in Japan, and the geometrical calculation on the celestial sphere. Comparing the actual sundial measurements with the calculation of our simulator, the calculation accuracy of our simulator was about 6 minutes in time. Our simulator also has ease of use and can be made at low cost, so it may be expected to be used in school education.

  • 磯﨑 哲夫
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 246-257
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The school subject known as ‘chigaku’ (earth science) was established as one of the new scientific subjects in upper secondary schools in 1948. Since then, the numbers of students who took earth science has been lower than the other three scientific subjects, and that has been regarded as a serious issue for its value in science learning at every revision of the course of study. In this research, the author first investigates the arguments on the value of earth science education from the 1950s to the 1960s. Second, referring to the Osborne’s notion of the aims and objectives of science education, the author examines the aims and objectives of earth science education. Finally, the author argues to add ‘the pedagogical argument’ to the four arguments which Osborne proposed: utilitarian, cultural, economic, and democratic. The cultural, democratic, and pedagogical values of learning earth science should be emphasized for rethinking the aims and objective of earth science education.

  • 平賀 伸夫, 東垂水 琢哉, 中村 千恵, 北村 淳一
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 258-267
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The importance of collaboration between schools and museums has been pointed out recently. For this study, we developed a loan kit to promote collaboration between schools and museums in Mie Prefecture, Japan. We devised methods to make it easier for school teachers to utilize the loan kit, and examined how this loan kit was actually used in classrooms. We also analyzed what kinds of changes took place in the degree of interest in museums on the part of both teachers and students as a result of using the loan kit in classroom. The achievements and knowledge obtained from this study include; 1) completion of a loan kit containing a chicken skeleton specimen, together with worksheets and a teacher’s guide, including practical lesson examples, 2) preparation of two alternative methods and contents; one method was teacher-centered and the other was students-centered; the contents were designed to be adaptable depending on the numbers of students and classes, 3) development of a loaning system, including teacher training, 4) an increase in interest in museums observed in both students and teachers after using the loan kit in classroom.

資料
  • 植竹 紀子, 堀田 のぞみ, 垣内 康孝, 千葉 和義
    2017 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 268-277
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    In the science section of the Japanese course of study, there are four “fields”, i.e. “matter (particle)”, “energy”, “life” and “the earth”, and these fields consist of by many “units” containing scientific knowledge or concepts which should be understood by pupils. To classify scientific papers written by pupils, we identified the scientific knowledge or concepts used by pupils in their scientific papers. When the scientific knowledge or concept in the scientific paper were found in the unit of the Japanese course of study, we determined the papers to be related to that unit. Using 102 papers from the Japanese science contest (Shizekon) from 2006 to 2011, we found that some pupils used scientific knowledge or concepts which were scheduled to be learned later in elementary or junior high schools. Many papers (72%) were classified as the “life” field. On the other hand, only 35% of the units in “the earth” field were found in the papers examined. Most of the papers (82%) were related to two or more units or fields. Because teachers are expected to show pupils the relationships between units to improve their understanding of science, these scientific papers may be useful for teachers to develop their teaching materials.

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