The present research tested a quantitative model in which the sense of unfairness is determined by either the ratio of physical outcomes to inputs or the difference between psychological outcomes and inputs. Forty nine undergraduate students in Study 1 and eighty one students in Study 2 were asked to rate the fairness of the combinations of work hours and wages on nine point scales. The results suggest that the sense of unfairness of the work-wage combinations is related to the logarithmic function of the outcome/input ratio, and to linear function of the difference of estimated outcomes from estimated inputs. Implications were discussed in terms of the general quantitative models of fairness.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of consumer's purchase plans, price type POP advertising presentation and image type POP advertising presentation on in-store consumer behaviors from the points of item choices and contact with advertising. We carried out an survey interview for 263 consumers in a supermarket in Higashiosaka city and analyzed the data according to the experimental design: 2 (consumer's having some purchase plans or not) × 2 (being present of price type POP advertising or not) × 2 (being present of image type POP advertising or not). The results showed that price type POP advertising and image type POP advertising had different kinds of effects. It was suggested that the former promoted rational consumer behaviors and the latter promoted emotional consumer behaviors in item choices. We found the effects of contact with advertising on sales promotion only in price type POP advertising. We also found that consumer's purchase plans and a condition of POP advertising presentation had interaction effects on item choices and contact with advertising.
The present studies were conducted to examine the effects of the controllability and stability of self-handicapping and the style of self-handicapping on observers' impressions. Subjects were requested to read a description of a person (self-handicapper) who acquired or claimed a handicap before a test. The results showed that (a) contorollable and unstable handicaps augmented the perception of responsibility and reduced observer's intention of helping behavior, (b) uncontorollable and stable handicaps reduced the perception of self-handicapper's confidence and success-probability, and (c) claimed self-handicapping was perceived more negatively than acquired self-handicapping. These results suggested the negative effects of self-handicapping on self-handicappers in both a short term and a long term.
Research has been made, or in progress, into the factors that promote or restrain the actual occurrence of helping behavior, and some models of its process have been proposed. However, most of these studies focused on the side of help-giving behavior, even though helping takes place always in an interpersonal situation. In this study, helping behavior is regarded as a series of interpersonal behavior. To analyze helping behavior in its total context, the mechanism of "help-seeking" behavior is examined through three sets of factors: 1) the situational cognition of help-seekers that restrain help-seeking (15 motives of avoiding help-seeking); 2) personal characteristics such as social skill, selfesteem and empathy; and 3) help-seeking intentions. Further, distinction is made between labor-seeking situations and information-seeking situations.
The purpose of this article is to propose a tentative model of environment-conscious behavior, to review relevant researches on energy and water conservation, recycling, and detergents-using behavior on the basis of our model, and to clarify determinants of these behaviors. The decision making of environment-consicious behavior is hypothesized to consist of two phases. The first phase is to decide on a general goal intention of a pro-environmental lifestyle. The second is to decide on a specific behavior intention of environment-conscious behavior consistent with the general goal intention previously determined. The main conclusions of this review are as follows. The facilitating factors of the goal intention were the three main beliefs about the environmental problems; the perceived seriousness of environmental problems, the ascription of responsibility for environmental problems, and the belief in the effectiveness of an proenvironmental lifestyle. The main inhibiting or facilitating factors of the behavior intention were the three evaluations of this behavior; the feasibility evaluation, the costbenefit evaluation, and its social norm evaluation.
According to the reformulated model of learned helplessness, the attributional dimension of internality is an important determinant of low self-esteem. However, there have been few empirical studies of this relationship. This study was conducted to examine whether the content of high school students' attributional styles as measured at Time 1 interacted with the outcomes students received on a midterm examination to predict the state of their subsequent self-esteem. In addition, I investigated the relation between the causal attributions these students made for their grades and their self-esteem. The results were as follows: Students who internally attributed the cause of hypothetical negative outcomes were found to have lower self-esteem after receiving poor results from actual midterm examination. Causal attributions for naturally occurring events were not correlated with concurrent levels of self-esteem. Some implications of these results are discussed.
Improving Bardeen's investigation presented in Knapp (1972), dominance among sense modalities (vision, audition, touching) in the perception of intimacy at communication was experimented. In Exp. 1, which follows Bardeen's investigation and subjects compared all three modalities (with-insubject design), the person who met through vision was tended to be selected for the most intimate person. On the other hand, Exp. 2, in which subjects met the experiment cooperator through only one of the sense modalities (between-subjects design), subjects who met through touching felt more intimacy than others. Moreover, experiments in which the person stimuli were presented by writings, expressed by sense-modality-features, showed that touching condition was evaluated the most intimate both in Exp. 3 (all three conditions were presented and compared; within-subjectdesign) and Exp. 4 (one of them was presented; between-subjects design). Consequently, it wasshown that touching has relation to intimacy and dominance of touching in perception of intimacyis evident, and moreover, it was suggested that there presumably is reliance on vision in everydaycommunication.