The purpose of the present study was to make clear the feature of social dependency demand in junior-high school students. One hundred and eight male and 93 female junior-high school students were asked to rate 16 items to the extent of how dependent they were on 4 objects (mother, father, one of the most intimate friends of the same sex, one of the most intimate friends of the opposite sex). In analysis I, factor analysis revealed Intra-Dependency demand Organizations (Intra-DDO), and analysis of variance revealed their main dependency demands for each object. In analysis II, factor analysis revealed Inter-Dependency demand Organizations (Inter-DDO). Both Intra-DDO and Inter-DDO were different according to subject's sex. While male subjects had primarily instrumental dependency demand, female subjects had primarily psychological dependency demand, in addition to instrumental dependency demand.
More people are choosing to remain single in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intention to marry and various psychological factors, using Ajzen & Madden's (1986) theory of planned behavior, which has received the most attention among the models of the attitude-behavior relation. The results show psychological factors such as general attitudes toward marriage, loss of freedom felt by marriage, perceived behavioral control, individualism, and impressions of parents' marital relationships are related to a person's willingness to marry. However, subjective norm and gender-role orientation are not related. In conclusion, more people will remain single because psychological motivation for marriage will decrease.
The present study investigated how positive versus negative self-schematics on a friendly-unfriendly or intelligent-unintelligent dimension should process person information differently in impression formation tasks. Sixty female undergraduates served as subjects. They were asked to rate two targets on several trait scales based on a list of 12 behavioral descriptions. As a result, unfriendly-schematics rated the targets more favorably on friendliness-related scales than aschematics, while friendly-schematics rated them the same way as did aschematics. On the other hand, intelligent-schematics tended to evaluate the target's intelligent behaviors more positively compared with unintelligent-schematics and aschematics. The recall test showed that negative self-schematics on either of the two dimensions were more likely to cluster schema-related behaviors in memory. It was suggested that some motivational accounts other than self-esteem theory should be needed for interpreting the present results.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of speakers' eyeblink frequency on receivers' impression formation in person perception. One hundred and thirty-four subjects, 96 males and 38 females, participated in this study as the receivers. The speakers were presented on video display, and they blinked either frequently or rarely. Subjects then rated impressions of the speakers on a set of 32 items of SD-scale. A factor analysis of the ratings yielded 3 factors, interpreted as "dynamism", "intimacy", and "sincerity". The frequently blinking speakers were rated less dynamic, intimate, and sincere, than the rarely blinking speakers. The results indicate that frequent eyeblinks had negative influences on impressions.
The purpose of this study is to test a new hypothesis for the group identity effects in social dilemmas, the effect that common group membership promotes cooperation. According to the proposed hypothesis, people prefer to cooperate with ingroup members because they expect reciprocal responses from ingroup, but not from outgroup members. In other words, people are considered to expect generalized reciprocity to exist within groups but not beyond group boundaries. Based on this hypothesis, it was predicted that the previously observed group identity effect-subjects facing a prisoner's dilemma cooperate more with an ingroup member than with an outgroup member-exists only when the partner shares the membership information. When the partner does not know that the subject shares the same group membership, group identity effect is predicted not to emerge. Result of an experiment with 78 subjects clearly supported this prediction and rejected alternative hypotheses based on psychological distance(Krammer & Brewer, 1984), social identity (Billig & Tajfel, 1973), and ingroup stereotype (Brewer, 1978).
A survey of 118 married couples with university aged children investigated the relationship between the sources of material resources (money) and psychological resources (approval) wives received, and wives' "dedication commitments" towards their husbands on the other hand. The main findings were as follows: (1) Wives perceiving more approval from their husbands were more likely to make a higher level of "dedication commitments." (2) Wives obtaining more money from sources other than their husbands were more likely to make a lower level of "dedication commitments." (3) A substantial discrepancy was found between wife's evaluation of the value of her work and its evaluation by her husband. The study also showed that husbands who valued their wives' work more highly were likely to be rated lower in psychological importance by their wives.
This study examined the development of trusting relationships as investments in relation-specific assets. A new experimental game called "the dilemma of variable interdependency" was created based on iterated prisoner's dilemma game, in which subjects faced a choice of increasing or decreasing the level of dependency in addition to the usual choice between cooperation and defection. Results of the experiment confirmed the hypothesis that high-trusters (those who have a strong belief in human benevolence) would take a risk of making themselves vulnerable to exploitative behavior of the partner more strongly than low-trusters. This resulted in formation of mutually highly dependent relationships among high-trusters. It was further demonstrated that the subjects' levels of trust affect their cooperation levels when they were given an option to choose the level of dependence but not in the ordinary two-person, iterated PD.