People usually have credibilities against speakers when communicating each other. The credibility has 2 aspects; expertness and reliability which are influenced by personal-perception such as how a listener recognize a speaker. However, no studies have been done, focusing on the relationship between credibility and effects by personal-perception. Focusing on the reliability which seems to depend on personality, the authors therefore give self personality tests, another person's personality tests based on the personal-perception and reliability tests to 69 university students. The authors set several assumptions on the relationship between reliability and personality and make discussions. As a result, the authors confirm that the reliability can be described with differences between a subject's personality and an another's one evaluated by a subject.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the adolescents' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and to examine the effects of sex and gender-role identity on them. Subjects were 312 (124 male and 188 female) undergraduates. Sixty-three males and 95 females rated the attitudes toward gay men. Sixty-one males and 93 females rated the attitudes toward lesbians. Major findings were as follows: 1. From factor analysis, three factors were extracted: social acceptance, psychological distance, and positive images. 2. As compared with females, males scored lower on social acceptance, higher on psychological distance, and lower on positive images. Especially, males avoided gay men more psychologically than lesbians. 3. Males in high masculinity (HM) accepted gay men less and avoided them more psychologically than males in low masculinity (LM). 4. Females in LM accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in HM. Females in high femininity (HF) accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in low femininity (LF). Females in HM imaged gay men and lesbians more positively than females in LM. These findings were discussed in terms of the sex differences of socialization (gender role expectation) and same-sex friendship.
The purpose of this study was to find out image types of self which university students wished to present to familiar others and to examine relationships between their self-presentation to these targets and mental health. In the study 1, ninety male students were asked to describe their self-images that they wished to present to familiar others (father, mother, same-sex friend, opposite-sex friend, and teacher). Fifteen different types were detected among the reported self-images. Frequencies of each image type were found to strongly depend on the type of target person. In the study 2, seventy-nine male students were asked to select five types from the 15 images, which they wished best to present to the targets, and to rate the degree of their being successfully presented each image. It was also found that the selection was strongly affected by the type of target person. These findings were explained in terms of Schlenker & Weigold's (1989) self-identification theory. Though most subjects assertively presented themselves in familiar relations, these tendencies correlated with neither the level of self-esteem nor of social anxiety.
A new method of detecting and controlling for acquiescence response biases in questionnaire studies was developed and applied to a cross-national survey data on trust collected by Yamagishi & Yamagishi (1994). Instead of including a set of balanced items or a large number of mutually unrelated questions as was common in conventional methods for assessing acquiesence, the proposed method uses multiple, mutually independent sets of items selected based on a principal component analysis. A relatively high correlation (r=.56) between two independent indices of acquiescence (obtained from two independent sets of items) suggests validity of the proposed method. No statistically significant differences in acquiescence were found between American and Japanese respondents suggesting that the results of Yamagishi & Yamagishi's results were not due to crossnational differences in acquiescence responses.
This study examined the effects of family separation on tanshin-funin employees' organizational commitment and family commitment, and of both commitments on their primary appraisal and stress reactions. Subjects were 247 tanshin-funin employees, who transferred without the accompaniment of their family, 239 taido-funin employees, who transferred taking their family, and 225 non-transferees. Factor analysis found four factors for organizational commitment; "continuance commitment", "work willingness", "value acceptance" and "utilitarian commitment". Four factors were found for family commitment: "mental bonding", "work willingness", "group orientation", "reason-ability of family" and "utilitarian commitment". Two factors were found for a primary appraisal: "their own problem" and "a family and domestic problem". The results indicated that: (1) "work willingness for organization" and mental bonding" became stronger due to family separation. (2) Tanshin-funin employees' "value acceptance" "group orientation" and both "utilitarian commitments" significantly influenced stress reactions through "their own problem" or "a family and domestic problem".
For nearly three decades, the existence of the physical attractiveness stereotype or the stereotype that physically attractive people have a more socially desirable personality almost has been taken for granted in social psychology. However, the existence of this stereotype is not so evident as is often assumed to be. Results of an experiment reported in this paper demonstrate that the effect of perceived "beauty" of a stimulus person (photographed female) on the subject's evaluation of that person's personality is drastically reduced or even reserved when the degree of subjects' liking of that person is controlled. On one personality dimension, even the reverse stereotype that physically attractive people have a malignant personality was found to exist when subject's liking of the stimulus person is controlled. These and related findings suggest that people assume that physically attractive person has a nice personality not because they have an implicit personality theory connecting physical and mental attractiveness but rather because people simply like an attractive person.
This study was designed to examine how teacher's feedback to an individual pupil's answer was influenced by her attitude toward the pupil, i.e., teacher's perception of and preference for an individual pupil. Two primary school female teachers' feedback to pupils' answers in arithmetic lessons were videotaped and analyzed. Each teacher taught 12 hours in one series of observation. And the teachers were asked about their perception of and preference for each pupil. The analysis of relations between the teachers' feedback and their attitude showed that percentages of affirmation and/or explanations to the pupils' correct answers in easy questions varied according to how they perceived each pupil's ability, obedience, mental strength and how they liked each individual pupil. The results were discussed mainly with reference to Cooper's (1979) model for expectation communication and behavior influence.