Three-hundred and sixty four males and females were asked to estimate the distributions of men's and women's (ingroup and outgroup) opinions about the advantage of being men and women. They were also asked to indicate their own opinions about the advantage of the two sexes as well as their satisfaction with being their own sex. First, intergroup differences were found in the estimated opinion distributions; both male and female respondents estimated that, in their outgroup rather than in their ingroup, there must be more opinions that the respondents' own sex is advantaged, while the perceived intergroup differences showed the reverse directions regarding their opposite sex. Second, the outgroup homogeneity effect were identified in male respondents' estimates. Third, those who considered their own sex more advantaged and estimated higher percentage of the same opinion in their ingroup were more satisfied with being their own sex. Forth, the female respondents were satisfied with being their own sex as much as the males were, in spite of the recognition of relative disadvantage of being women.
According to the revised protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), it was assumed that the decision to engage (or not engage) in a health-related behavior is determined by seven cognitive factors: perceived severity, perceived probability of the occurrence, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and response costs. In order to explore the determinants of HIV preventive intentions based on the theory, 398 Japanese university students (212 men and 186 women) were asked to rate these cognitive factors and three intentions of HIV prevention acts. As predicted, self-efficacy had positive contributions to all three intentions. Perceived probability of occurrence and response efficacy had positive contributions to one or two of the intentions, whereas intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards had negative contributions to one of the intentions. Severity and response costs, however, had no contribution to any intention. The above results partially supported the protection motivation theory.
The asymmetrical effects of similar and dissimilar attitude on interpersonal attraction were investigated in four studies. First two studies suggested that the effect of dissimilarity was stronger than that of similarity, and the remaining two studies revealed that this negativity effect occurred not in integration but in valuation processes. These results supported the hypothesis that the negative evaluations were generally more polarized than the positive ones but were hidden under the different intervals between positive and negative scales. As bipolar rating scales seem to be inappropriate for comparing the positive and negative evaluations, the principle of neutralization was suggested for determination of the same magnitude of positivity and negativity.
The present study investigates the effect of processing goals on cognition of ongoing behavior of others. We used the think-aloud method to analyze concrete contents of information being processed. Forty-six subjects were randomly divided into an impression group and a memory group. Subjects were instructed to tell the content which he or she was thinking during the observation of the target's behavior. Then we translated the online protocol to script data. The script data were then divided into lexical analysis; that is, we counted nouns, verbs, adjectives, adjectival verbs, and adverbs contained in the script data. Results showed that the proportion of nouns and verbs in the memory group were greater than the impression group. The proportion of adjectives, adjectival verbs, adverbs and trait words in impression group were higher than the memory group. From theabove results we conclude that the information being processed from the ongoing behavior in impression formation was different from the information being processed in the behavioral memory, especially in terms of trait information.
Many studies of group in social psychology have distinguished "groups" from other aggregates by some peculiar standards and piled up research focusing only on them. In reality, however, there are various aggregates that have many different characteristics. In the course of participant observation and interviewing at a park in early morning, the present study presents an aggregate which exists between group and togetherness situation. The circle of people here had characteristics of a group as follows: 1) it is an organization which has the shared purpose; 2) each member has particular status and role to each other; 3) There are the same norms shared by members. At the same time, however, it also had aspects of a togetherness situation as follows: 1) the membership (whether one is a member or not) is not clear; 2) deviants are not punished; 3) outsiders are not excluded. Based on these findings, the present study tries to document the continuity between group and togetherness situation and to propose a new viewpoint to see a variety of individual's identity which is salient in various aggregates.
Sixty-three subjects (32 novice, and 31 experienced drivers) in twenty-four traffic situations evaluated the meaning of a road user's signals such as blinkers, headlights, hazard lamps, hand gestures. Scenes were projected by a slide projector in a laboratory. Confidence in answers was also evaluated by using a 5-point scale. The signals were classified into three categories; Formal Device-Based Signals, Informal Device-Based Signals, and Informal Gesture-Based Signals. The comprehension scores indicated that experienced drivers understood the signals better than novice drivers. The difference was especially large for the scores of Informal Device-Based Signals. Experienced drivers were more confident of their answers than novice drivers. Novice drivers understood Formal Device-Based and Informal Gesture-Based Signals better than Informal Device-Based Signals. These results were similar to those of the ratings of confidence. Gender difference was also found to have a strong effect in the scores of confidence. From the viewpoint of driver's social skill, it was discussed how their skill in interpersonal communication on roads develops in real traffic situations.
The purpose of this study is to (1) investigate the impact of perceived humor on three dependent measures of advertising effects: attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and intention to purchase, and (2) to examine the moderating role of consumer's evaluation to the ad and product involvement in the impact of perceived humor on advertising effects. Three kinds of printed advertisements were presented as stimuli to 100 university students. Subjects were asked to answer a series of questions. The major findings were as follows: (1) Attitude toward the ad mediated perceived humor's impact on attitude toward the brand and intention to purchase. (2) Perceived humor had positive effect on attitude toward the brand although consumer's evaluation to the ad in terms of credibility and usefulness was low. (3) It was indicated that the impact of perceived humor on advertising effects was affected by product involvement. (4) Perceived humor positively affected consumer's intention to communicate interpersonally about the ad.