This study investigated the effect of the presence of other person on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior elicited by media violence. In experiment 1, sixty undergraduate students (30 males and 30 females) were first exposed to a violent video either with the same-gender person or alone. Then, subjects described what they were thinking about while watching the video, and rated their affect about the video. Heart rate and eye blink rate were recorded continuously while watching the video. Results showed that the presence of other person while exposed to media violence inhibited negative affect and facilitated positive thoughts and affect. In experiment 2, sixty undergraduate students (30 males and 30 females)were exposed to a violent video either with the samegender person who reacted positively to the video or with the one who reacted negatively. Unlike the experiment 1, aggressive behavior was measured on the Taylor (1967) paradigm. Results showed that the presence of other person who reacted positively to media violence facilitated aggressive behavior.
In order to exanmine social and personality factors of the protests against the France's resumption of nuclear testing, we administered a questionnaire to 104 respondents, including those who have participated in the protest movements. A path model based on Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action was tested by regression analysis. The results indicated that attitudes toward the protest, subjective norm, perseverance, empathy, and social extraversion positively contributed to the protests, while, inconsistent with the model, an exposure to and trust in mass media and self-exhibition negatively contributed to the protests. Interviews with 25 participants further suggested that their motivation for protests were influenced by their previous experiences of protests and perception of costs.
The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the impact of perceived humor on advertising effects, and (2) to examine the moderating role of product involvement and prior brand attitude in the impact of perceived humor on advertising effects. Two kinds of printed advertisement were presented as stimuli to 91 undergraduate students. The subjects were then asked to answer a series of questions. Major findings of the study were as follows: (1) It was indicated that consumers may selectively attend to the humor and pay no more attention to the product related information presented with it. (2) Perceived humor had positive effect on advertising effects when consumer's prior brand attitude was negative, which supported distraction effect of perceived humor, and this distraction effect was stronger when product involvement was low.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's resources and group cultures in Japanese classrooms. According to Hargreaves (1972), the resource is the basis of both liking and power, and it is closely linked with the culture of group. In order to examine his theory, 209 elementary school children and 276 junior high school students were administered to measure perceived resources and power of and liking toward their teachers, and group cultures of classrooms. The following results were obtained: (1) There were six kinds of teacher's resources in classroom. They were "consideration", "appearance", "legitimacy", "leadership", ''expertness", and "play". (2) "Consideration" was the most important resource for teachers. (3) Importance of teacher's resource depended on the classroom culture.
Using the scheme of media "uses and gratifications" study, two surveys with 800 random samples at Nerima ward in l994 and Bunkyo ward in 1995, respectively, were conducted. The results of the 1994 survey showed the existence of the wide usage of magazines as "manual." This usage of magazines as manuals was more widespread among the younger people than the older people: the younger people not only used magazines as manuals, but they were also inclined to obtain gratifications after the use. It was also found that the use of magazines as maumals was consummatory (self-gratifying). The results of the 1995 survey showed that the use of magazines as manuals was interpretable as an active use of mass media. This interpretation is quite consistent with the traditional viewpoint of "uses and gratifications" study.