Ethnic identity is assumed to change depending on social context, and is strongly activated by migration across cultures. To construct a model of ethnic identity transformation, we interviewed 38 second-generation migrant workers from a Japanese colony in Bolivia. Of these, we analyzed in detail 10 cases from which statements regarding ethnic identity were obtained. The internal factors which shaped ethnic identity transformation were the recognition of the differences between self and others; the recognition of the exclusion from host society; and the subjective life-plan. The external factors which caused ethnic identity transformation were the social contexts in which the difference between self and others became salient.
A scale was developed to assess undergraduate students' negative and positive events in interpersonal and achievement domains. Two studies were conducted for assessing validity of this scale. In Study 1, in which 279 female subjects participated, correlations between the scores of life event scale and those of two other scales assessing depression (SDS) and subjective well-being were examined. In Study 2, in which 94 male and 108 female subjects participated, correlations between the scores of life event scale and those of two other scales assessing depression (BDI) and self-esteem were examined. Result of these studies showed high construct validity of life event scale. In addition to the 119-item full varsion of scale, its 60-item short version was presented.
This study focused on how daily role playing is related to new role taking. Twenty eight subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. They were asked to rate the attractiveness of ingroup members and the expectation for other's reward allocation and to allocate rewards to members of ingroup and outgroup. Categories of daily role playing was assessed from contents of self description. The results indicated that the ingroup favoritism score correlated with bothe the attractiveness of ingroup members and the expectations for other's reward allcation. Within the subjects who described themselves as a member of interdependent group, expectation of other's reward allocation positively correlated with ingroup favoritism scores. The findings suggest that the daily role playing is related to ingroup favoritism as role taking process.
In order to make clear the decision making process of driving behavior in a variety of situations, the present study used "protocol analysis". The fourteen subjects (6 male and 8 female) drove on the test routes in a city, which was about 7.8 km length. Returning to the laboratory after driving, these subjects were asked to talk about what and why they had paid attention to see, what kind of cognitions and feelings they had had, and what kind of behavior they had decided on. To find out several patterns of decision making processes (DMP) of the deceleration, acceleration and searching behavior, these reports were applied to the cluster analysis. The main results as follows. Those patterns of DMP were different according to the driving behavior. Even if the driving behavior was same, the patterns of DMP were changed by the situations. These results were interpreted in terms of the differences in the hazard and risk perception. This suggests the close interrelationships between these perception and the DMP.
This study investigated the shy individuals' development of close relationships at both cognitive and behavioral levels, and examined the effect of shyness on loneliness within a new environment. One hundred and twenty-four freshmen (Study 1) and two hundred and seven freshmen (Study 2) completed questionnaire regarding their relationship with a new same-sex best friend at their university. Participants were also administered the Trait Shyness Scale (Aikawa, 1991) and the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrana, 1980). The main results were as follows: 1) The relationship between the shy individual and his/her new best friend was less intimate at both cognitive and behavioral levels than that of not-shy individuals. 2) The effect of shyness on loneliness was partly mediated by their relationship with the new best friend. In other words, (a) shy individuals were not able to engage in a great number of behaviors with their new friend, and (b) they tended to evaluate their relationship more negatively. These two processes caused shy individuals to feel their friendship less intimate, which leads to loneliness.