The purpose of the present study was to investigate the seven functions of private space (Tomari & Yoshida, 1998a) with respect to affect and use of place. Five hundred and eighty-six under-graduates completed a questionnaire concerning affect, use of place and the functions of private space. The major findings were as follows: (1) Depressive feelings and irritation were positively related to both the need for space for changing one's mood and introspection. (2) Outdoor spaces can function as places allowing introspection and self-change; spaces to be alone, allowing tension reduction and change in mood. These results suggest that place can be actively used to achieve the functions of private space according to one's emotional state.
This study focuses on those who participate in the environmental movement and explores factors which are necessary in order for them to stay, or to actively participate within it. The questionnaires were distributed at the annual meeting of an environmental volunteer group, Eco-League, and via mail to those members absent. Factors were categorized as collective benefits, which are related to the achievement of collective goal, and selective incentives, which affect only those who participated. The analysis of 206 questionnaires showed that organizational identification and subjective norm had a significant effect on intention to stay and willingness to exert efforts, while the perceived seriousness of environmental problems and the efficacy of the movement did not. The result indicated that selective incentives, rather than collective benefits had a stronger influence on behavioral intentions. An analysis of social network revealed that concern for environmental issues amongst friends increased participants' commitment to the movement and toward adopting environmentally-conscious behaviors.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
From a viewpoint of identity negotiation framework (Swann, 1987), it was hypothesized that outcomes of the negotiation appear more clearly in the early ( = unstable) stage than in the stable stage of interpersonal relationship development. In study 1, we found that reflected self-appraisal was influenced by appraisal from one's partner in the early stage. In study 2, no such effects were found in the stable stage. These results supported our hypothesis. Furthermore, detailed analyses of specific components of self in the early stage revealed that the outcomes of negotiations on the cognitive component and the external cognitive one appeared more slowly than that of the affective one and that of the internal cognitive one, respectively. The former result is thought to reflect the difference of speed to process self-relevant information, and the latter result to reflect the difference of accessibility to each phase of self from others. According to these findings, we discussed a need for theoretical discrimination concerning structure of self-concepts and the implications of this study toward the future study on the self-process.
The purpose of this paper was to reveal the relationships between social exchanges and the quality of a romantic relationship from various social exchange perspectives, analyzing the couple as a unit. Subjects were 92 couples. Major findings were as follows: 1. Perceptions of equity and equality within the romantic dyad weren't related. On the other hand, the values of maximizing own outcome model, maximizing other's outcome model, maximizing joint outcome model, and investment model were positively related. 2. The lesser the discrepancy between the couple's self-outcome and that of equity model were, the greater the couple's satisfaction was. The lesser the discrepancy between the couples' investment model was, the greater the couple's commitment was.