The relation between the process of social support and the receiver's trust in a support provider was examined in a longitudinal design. Support receivers were 270-freshmen at university. Support providers were their parents, a new and an old friend. Analysing questionnaires indicates the following: (1) When person was subjected to high stress level, the received support improved the receivers' trust in the providers independent of the source of support. (2) For medium stress level, disparities between the receivers' support expectation and the actual receipt modified their trust in fathers and new friends. (3) The prospective receipt of support was related not only to the previous receipt support and norm on support provision but also the receivers' trust in the providers.
Seven Japanese women of ages between forty-five and fifty-five were interviewed individually in order to examine the process of the inner development of middle-aged Japanese women. Their life-histories were analyzed in detail. Main findings were as follows: (1) The women had recognized inner change and growth through various experiences primarily in domestic spheres, and secondarily through jobs, hobbies, studies and community activities. (2) The women who were relieved from child-rearing responsibilities decided to live the latter half of their lives free of restrictions laid by their families and society, trying to fulfill their personal goals for their own lives. (3) Their development was attained through committing themselves to their children and associating with female friends and personal acquaintances. In contrast to these intimate relationships, these women were psychologically distant from their husbands without being aware of it. (4) Their life processes and inner development were produced through interacting with the social and cultural contexts peculiar to their own generation.
This study investigated how minority's behavior might influence others' attitudes and behaviors about AIDS. In the study, 60 undergraduate subjects were presented a 15 minute videotaped stimulus, where the minority (one person) consistently asserted positive opinions toward those infected with the H1V virus, in conflict with the majority (four persons) who consistently asserted negative opinions in the group discussion setting. Furthermore, the minority's negotiation style (flexible or rigid) was manipulated. The results include the following: (1) Three attitude factors; a supportive and/or helping attitude, an avoiding attitude towards both HIV and AIDS patients, and a prejudiced attitude toward AIDS in general, were obtained. (2) The consistently asserted flexible and rigid minority altered the subjects' attitude. (3) The rigid minority was more influential in altering attitudes than the flexible minority. The results suggest that a rigid minority position concurrent with the subjects' attitude may be more influential than a flexible minority.
The present study explored the causal relationships among heterosocial anxiousness (HSA), expectancies toward the positive cross-sex relationships in the future (EPR), Heterosocial affiliative orientation (HAO), two types of comparative appraisal on HAO (socially compared HAO, temporarily compared HAO), and heterosocial behaviors in Japanese adolescents. Four hundred and fourteen college students were asked to answer the questionnaire including scales measuring these constructs.A series of correlation analyses and covariance structure analyses were conducted, and main results were as follows: 1. Socially compared HAO determined HSA in women. In contrast, temporarily compared HAO determined HSA in men. 2. HAO and HSA independently determined EPR, and the frequency of intimate heterosocial behaviors during last two months. Finally, some important gender differences in these results were discussed in connection withpeer relationship and self-cognition in adolescence.
The goal of this study was to examine the relative importance of Japanese company-wives' contact with the host people along with other background variables, in predicting their thoughts about living in the UK, perceptions toward the host society and its people, and cross-cultural awareness (intercultural attitudes). A total of 137 company-wives returned the questionnaires. The results revealed that degree of intimacy and frequency (not the opportunity) of contact had a moderate association with intercultural attitudes. However, the results from regression analyses suggest that each of the contact variables with other background variables together accounted for a relatively low proportion of variance in intercultural attitudes. It might be concluded that changing attitudes and beliefs by increasing cross-cultural contact is no short-term matter, and can be achieved to a certain degree but not overwhelmingly so.