This study presents intimate relationships of undergraduate students within interpersonal networks. It analyzed resource acquisition performed between individuals in the network from the point of view of each centric individual. The description of intimate interpersonal networks used Psychological Distance Map (PDM), and the patterns of resource acquisition prescribed by the psychological distance between an individual and other, which show how the degree of intimacy were classified. Also the structural types of networks, which were determined by the intimacy range and the number of network members, and its relationship with the pattern of resource acquisition prescribed by the degree of intimacy were examined. Results showed that there are four patterns of acquisitions extracted from the combinations of mainly two cases one is the acquisition of resources from more intimate individuals, and another is the acquisition from individuals of moderate-degree of intimacy. And the relationships with the structural types of networks showed some correlation with some acquisition type of resource. This suggests that the structural types of networks have different meaning in every pattern of interpersonal networks use.
The purpose of the study was to create a Japanese version of Pryor (1987) "Likelihood to Sexual Harassment scale" (LSH scale) and to assess its reliability and determinants. The scale meas ures differences among individuals regarding their likelihood of carrying out sexual harassment. Japanese male undergraduate students (N=192) completed questionnaires on the LSH scale and sexual attitudes (i.e., sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence). The results of principal component analysis and alpha coefficients showed the high reliability of the scale. Japanese male participants who had hostile attitudes to women produced high scores of the LSH scale. In addition, the LSH scores were higher in male participants who evaluated as trivial, rather than severe, behaviors that considered as sexual harassment in Japan and who anticipated sexual attraction to be women's sex role.
"Extended self" is defined as "the aggregation of all obiects that people regard as a part of themselves; for example, their body parts, parents, friends, pet animals, job, social roles, etc." The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the emotional reaction of involuntary loss of the extended self, that is, "material possessions" and 2) to examine the structure of "extended self" and its relation to the values attached to the possessions. We collected samples from the victims of the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake (209 university students) and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (87 university students). The questionnaire asked them to describe what kind of favorite possessions they lost, the emotions when they lost them, the values they attached to the possessions and to what extent they regarded the external objects as a part of themselves. The results showed both similarities and differences between the victims of two earthquakes. The main findings were as follows: 1) Most victims of both earthquakes showed a similar emotional reaction, that is, "sadness" to the loss of important possessions. 2) For the values they attached to their lost possessions, "functional value," "emotional value," "self-presentational value," and "symbolic value of relationship" were extracted. 3) The more emotional value the victims of the Hanshin Earthquake gave to their possessions, on the other hand, the more self-presentational value the victims of the Northridge Earthquake gave to their possessions, the more the victims of both earthquake regarded their possession as a part of extended self.
This study investigated the relationship between daily life events and self-evaluation processes. Two hypotheses were examined. First hypothesis is that task-relevant events would activate one's self-assessment motivation, and this motivation would increase one's preference for others who they usually view as a person to give objective advises. On the other hand, socio-emotional events would activate one's self-enhancement motivation, and this motivation would increase one's preference for others who they usually view as a person to give affective advises. Second hypothesis is that, although higher preference for objective others after task-relevant events would gradually shift to higher preference for affective others, one's preference for affective others after socio-emotional events would stay higher than one's preference for objective others. A total of two hundred and twenty six students (undergraduates, graduate students and nursing school students) completed the questionnaire including a hypothetical situation on either task-relevant or socio-emotional events. The results, consistent with the hypotheses, showed that one's preference for objective others was higher than one's preference for affective others after task-relevant events, but one's preference for affectivity increased gradually. On the other hand, one's preference for affective others was higher than one's preference for objective others after socio-emotional events, and this tendency was sustained. Implications for self-disclosure research, and directions for future research are also discussed.
Minorities are typically deprived of social resources. To survive in such a harsh environment, they often organize mutual aid associations. As an example of one such association, the rotating credit association of migrants was investigated for three purposes: the first, is to examine the function of a rotating credit association upon the economic adaptation. The second is to examine the components of a rotating credit association which induce cooperative behavior through generalized exchange. The third is to reveal the qualifications for membership into a rotating credit association. For these purposes, 30 Japanese migrants were interviewed. The conclusions were as follows: the effectiveness to advance the economic adaptation was contingent on economic circumstances. The institutions make it possible for members to cooperate with others for their own self-interest. Altruistic motives are not necessarily required. The qualification for affiliation with the association was determined not by ethnicity but by personal relationships.