This study examined two aspects of social norms, and investigated illegal crossing behavior at an intersection. Two norms were focused upon: the injunctive norm, i.e. to wait during a red light; and the descriptive norm, i.e. to be influenced by the behavior of surrounding people. Study 1 was a natural observation of 56 persons and 50 groups as they passed by an intersection. Study 2 looked at three kinds of descriptive norms derived from Study 1, and 183 persons who passed an intersection were questioned about their crossing behavior. Results showed that: 1) Most people were influenced by a norm manifested within a particular situation; 2) The particular intersection in question was itself inductive of illegal crossing; 3) Males were more prone to ignore the red light than females. This study suggested that the behavior of surrounding people is a strong predictor of pedestrian crossing behavior, and the importance of descriptive norms was confirmed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and employment and job satisfaction as an airline cabin attendant (CA) or customer service agent (CSA). Study 1 focused on the initial employment of CAs and CSAs. Study 2 dealt with subjects who succeeded in finding work as CAs and CSAs. Study 3 considered the factors leading to job satisfaction as CAs and CSAs. The subjects of studies 1 and 2 were 154 female students in a vocational school. The subjects of study 3 were 61 female CAs and CSAs. The results of study 1 demonstrated that a greater ability to modify self-presentation was significantly correlated with being employed in these positions. In study 2, lower sensitivity to expressive behavior in others and lower social anxiety were positively correlated with being employed later on. Public self-consciousness and duplicity were found in study 3 to have significant negative correlations with job satisfaction. Consequently, these results suggest that self-monitoring is a significant situational personality that is positively related to employment as a CA or CSA.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loss of material possession and social support network on QOL (Quality of Life). In this study, QOL was defined as "the subjective feeling of satisfaction or happiness" and was measured by "the grade of well-being" and "the state of mind and body health." Three hundreds and sixty-five victims of the Great Hanshin Earthquake(105 males, 256 females, and 4 undetermined sex) who lived at temporary houses in Nishinomiya City were asked to complete a questionnaire by personal interview method. The main findingswere as follows: (1) the victims who had lost their important possessions were higher in well-beingscore than ones that did not. On the other hand, the victims who had not lost them were higher inmind and body health score than ones that did. (2) The number of social support network had no effect on well-being score. But the victims who had a large number of social support network stended to be higher in mind and body health score than ones that had a small number of them.
In order to clarify groups of emotions that compose shame, 309 university students were asked to rate 27 emotional items in accordance with their past shameful experience. The factor analysis revealed six groups of emotions composing shame, namely "Confusional Fear", "Emotion of Self-abnegation", "Basic Shame", "Emotion of Self-reproaching Shrink", "Awkwardness", and "Bashfulness". In another survey, the rated scores of 161 university students were examined in order to elucidate the relationship of the six groups of shame emotions with the multiple situational categories of shame, e.g. 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame', which, prior studies had considered. "Emotion of Self-abnegation" was felt with the most intensity in both 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame', while in the other situational categories of shame, it marked the least intensity. Since 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame' were found to be the typical situations of shame, these results suggested that "Emotion of Self-abnegation" could distinguish between a typical shame situation from those that are not.
Nowak & Latane (1994) conducted computer simulation of adaptive agent bound to network structure and found "consolidation" and "clustering". They claimed minority could remain in the system by clustering. They ignored, however, people living in modern society have global information about the system they live in. What will be changed, or not changed, when all agents in Latane et al.'s simulation have global information about the system and adapt to it? Our study examined this point by adding the "fifth agent" as the "generalized other", which represented global information about the ratio of minority and majority, to Latane et al.'s simulation. We found clustering appear only when the majority initially dominated the system in number. And we also found that the system stay chaotic under the condition that minority initially occupied considerable area of the system. These findings imply that homogeneous global information promotes not homogeneous but heterogeneous society.