The purpose of this research is to search for the boundary between common sense and the lack of common sense. The same investigation was repeated four times for there years about four events ("Kiss", "Meal", "Chat", and "Portable telephone"). In each investigation, a similar questionnaire was used that described 15 situations about each of four events. Three groups of students were asked to fill in the extent to which they thought an individual situation to be strange. Dendrograms by the hierarchical cluster analysis showed constantly the figure with two cores about "Kiss" and "Meal". They also showed constantly the figure of one core about "Chat" and "Portable telephone". The former was judged to be a type with a clear boundary. As for the latter, some possibilities were discussed.
This study investigated the relationship between the five factor model of personality traits (Big Five) and the seven functions of private space (Tomari & Yoshida, 1998a) in daily activities. Two hundred and fifty-seven undergraduates completed a questionnaire concerning the big five, daily activity, and the functions of private space. The major findings were as follows: (1) those scoring highly on the agreeableness scale have less tension reduction and introspection through recreation by themselves; (2) those scoring highly on the extraversion and openness scales have more frank communication and greater opportunity for self-change through the time spent with friends. These results suggest that certain functions of private space are achieved by how individuals spend their time according to the big five personality traits.
A panel study of 543 Japanese college students was conducted before and after the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 to explore the impact of the Olympics on the images of foreign countries. In general, the images of 17 countries including Japan have changed favorably after the Olympics. The more they have exposed themselves to Olympic reports on the media, the more they have changed the images. Individual differences had a small, but negative effect. For example, those who were not satisfied with the result of the Olympics tended to change the images unfavorably. Though the perception of similarity between Japan and each country has also increased through the Olympics, the correlation of the index of positive image and the perception of similarity was not high. It suggested that the images of foreign countries and the perception of similarity could have changed through respective processes.
The purpose of this study is to consider psychological process of AUM members who committed crimes, such as scattering poison gas to murder and others. Four defendants of AUM were interviewed and 76 former members of the group completed questionnaires designed to examine their experiences and lives including three of the interviewees. The following results were obtained: 1) Aum believers were absolutely obedient to their guru as authority, 2) Psychological manipulation by their guru toward the members who committed crimes was stronger than manipulation toward the innocent members, 3) The higher the status of the members, the higher manipulation level, 4) Their crimes were due to obedience to authority arising from perceiving dogma's superiority and fear of being killed themselves.
In two studies (scenario study and laboratory experiment), we attempted to examine a hypothesis that reactions in bargaining were determined by the concern for identity. In scenario study, the other party, who was allowed to divide a certain amount of money between the two parties, presented participates with either unfavorably unequal, equal, or favorably unequal offers, while in experiment study s/he offered either unfavorably unequal or equal one. In the ultimatum condition, the participants were told that only when they accepted the offer, both parties could get their portions. In the dictator condition, however, they were told that independently of their reactions, the other party could get his or her portion. The finding that the participants rejected the unfavorably unequal offer more frequently than the other offers in the ultimatum conditions could be partly interpreted as that they wanted to restore fairness by making both parties' portion zero. However, it was also found that the participants did so even in the dictator condition, in which they were not able to restore fairness by rejecting the offer. These results suggest that they perceived the unfavorably unequal offer from the other party as an insult and, therefore, they attempted to project their identity by rejecting it.