The present study revealed lay theories about 'agari' experiences. 'Agari' is a Japanese noun (the verb form is 'agaru') , referring to broad experiences including 'stage-fright', 'choking under pressure' and 'social anxiety'. Based upon the self-reports of 429 subjects, a 68-item questionnaire on the causes for 'agari' experiences (CAEQ) was constructed. Another 371 subjects completed the CAEQ, and a factor analysis of their responses revealed seven factors: "worry about failure", "pressure", "personality traits and emotional states", "insufficiency", "other awareness", "unfamiliarity", and "sense of inferiority". Next, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed and the results divided twelve 'agari' situations into four clusters of situations: "competition/test", "other sex", "presentation not requiring success", and "public evaluation". The clusters were differentiated by "pressure" and "other awareness" factors. These results were discussed in terms of lay theories' common and different characteristics between 'agari' eliciting situations.
This study examined the links between parents' child rearing attitudes, children's social skills, and support giving and support receiving in friendships among children, with particular emphasis on the mediate effect of social skills on the relation between parents' child rearing attitudes and support giving and support receiving. The subjects were 289 sixth graders and 339 tenth graders, who completed a retrospective measure of parental care and overprotection as well as self-rating measures of help-sympathy and assertion-activeness skills and of support giving and support receiving in a friendship in the past several months. More care and less intrusive parents' child rearing attitudes were associated with higher levels of children's help-sympathy and assertion-activeness skills, which, in turn, were related to more support giving and support receiving in friendships. In addition, children's social skills mediated the relation between parents' child rearing attitudes and support giving and support receiving in friendships.
This research examined the relationships among the attitude to value family care, the attitude to despise the use of social welfare services, evaluation apprehension, negative affects associated with the use of social welfare services, and intent to use the care services for elderly persons. The survey study in which 392 adults participated has revealed that the attitude to value family care, the attitude to despise the use of social welfare services, and evaluation apprehension led to low intent to use care services. The interview study asked 60 users of "home-help service" (in-home care services) regarding their attitudes toward the service use and negative affective reactions, and revealed that the attitude to value family care increased negative affects and the negative affects led to hesitation to use the service. The discussion considered the importance for care service professionals to recognize the attitudinal variables that inhibit the use of care services.
Twenty one undergraduates, acquainted with one another, rated both their own personality and those of the peers twice at three-month interval, using the ACL (Adjective Check List) based on the five-factor model of personality (FFM). By using the member-recombination technique, various subgroups were formed out of the subjects. With respect to each personality factor, the variance components for raters, ratees, rater-by-ratee interaction, and residual were estimated within each subgroup. The relationships of the variance components with the size of subgroups, with the matrices of subgroups, and with the familiarity among the members of each subgroup were analyzed. In the last analysis, the subgroups were divided into three classes according to the familiarity, and the variance partitioning was compared among these classes. The results showed that, in the class of maximum familiarity, the ratee effect for agreement and neuroticism was larger and that for extraversion was smaller.
We conducted an experiment to examine if there were discrepancies in the inference of intention and consequence of other's interpersonal behavior between native students and foreign students in Japan and if the discrepancies prevented the native and foreign students from a need for interacting with each other, which led to actual interactive behaviors. After 337 native female students and 73 Asian foreign female students at Ochanomizu University read two fictitious episodes describing that the characters of foreign students were interacting with the characters of native students, we asked them to infer the native and foreign characters' intention and consequence of interpersonal behavior. Consequently, we obtained some results indicating a perception gap, that is, the native female subjects regarded the foreign characters' intention and consequence as being more unfriendly and unfortunate respectively than the Asian foreign subjects did, and vise versa for the native characters' intention and consequence. In addition, structural equation modeling based on the data by the native female subjects suggested that such perception affected the amount of the native students' interaction with the Asian foreign students through the native students' need for the interaction.