This questionnaire-based research examines in what areas people have a strong desire for total risk elimination. On a seven point scale (1 =not at all to 7 =very strongly), participants in Shizuoka and Aichi prefectures rated how strongly they desire that no one should die on a range of 61 items. Items were chosen from previous studies that investigated people's risk perception of a variety of technologies, activities, and incidents. Some items were added to the list because they were heavily discussed public issues at the time in Japan (for example, dioxin or bullying at school) .The results showed that desire for zero risk is relatively weak in the areas of voluntary activities, interpersonal conflicts, and natural disasters. On the other hand, technologies related to atomic energy, medical treatment, bullying at school, and handgun use were the highest rated among the 61 items. The reason people desire zero risk regarding these items is discussed and compared to previous research dealing with people's desire for severe restrictions on technologies and activities that are perceived to be risky.
The main purpose of this study was to develop the 10-item Empathic Coping Scale (ECS) and to investigate the relationship of empathic coping to self-reports of psychological well-being. Study 1 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and split-half reliability of the ECS. Factor analysis of the ECS produced two factors for this relationship : cognitive/affective strategies and behavioral strategies. In Study 2, the ECS cross-validated with the measures of empathy, prosocial behavior, and coping with interpersonal stress. Study 3 demonstrated that empathic coping was associated negatively with psychological stress response. These findings have implications for future research examining empathic coping as a factor in stress-moderation.
This study was conducted to examine the relationships among (1) generation-gaps young people perceive between themselves and their parents' generation, (2) images of their parents' generation, and (3) story-telling by their parents about the past. A survey was conducted on 284 university students. The results showed that respondents experienced story-telling more from their mothers than from their fathers, and more about events in the respondents' childhood than about earlier events. Moreover, those who experienced story-telling from their mothers more frequently rated their parent's generation as having more vitality. A similar tendency was identified regarding the fathers' story-telling among female respondents. On hearing stories, respondents who felt pity tended to have images of toughness and those who felt envy and interest tended to have vitality images about their parents' generation. Finally, those who experienced story-telling from their mothers more frequently perceived smaller generation-gaps regarding some topics. In female respondents, more frequent story-telling from their fathers was related to smaller generationgaps. Possibilities for future research on story-telling from parents and parent-child and intergenerational relationships were discussed.
The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology has increased in society, and CMC is useful in making interpersonal relationships. This study investigated the effect of social skills on loneliness, based on the social network mediation model and the cognitive bias model (Levin & Stokes, 1986). The social network mediation model suggests that social skills affect loneliness through mediation by social network variables of both face-to-face (FTF) communication and CMC. The cognitive bias model states that social skills directly affect loneliness through cognitive processes. Two-hundred eleven college students (study 1) and 164 participants recruited through the Internet (study 2) completed self-report measures of loneliness and social skills in addition to instruments assessing their social networks on FTF and CMC. The results were as follows : (a) the effect of social skills on loneliness was mediated by the social network variables of FTF ; (b) CMC variables were affected by social skills, but had only weak effects on loneliness ; c social skills directly affected loneliness. The lack of nonverbal cues in CMC was discussed as a possible explanation for the weak effects of social network variables of CMC on loneliness.