This study classified environmentally-conscious behaviors toward saving rivers as a type of public good into personal and group behavior, and examined the factors correlating with their respective actions. Between average, non-active residents (n-450) and environmental volunteer group members who were active residents (n = 80) , there was no difference in their attachment to rivers, whereas attitudes toward environmental problems, including the perception of risk or other factors, were significantly higher among the volunteers. Path analysis indicated that personal behavior was influenced by attitudes toward environmental problems, while group behavior was affected by attachment to rivers. Subjective norms, moreover, indicated significant paths to both personal and group behavior. Based on these results, the possibility of both personal and group behaviors being common factors in the decision making processes of both non-active residents and volunteers is discussed.
This study examined the relationship between perceived procedural fairness and the evaluation of specific policies made by a city administration. A questionnaire survey was administered to residents (n = 643) of a town newly constructed in Kobe City. The respondents rated the extent to which the city administration explained things to them, paid respect to them, and listened to their opinions. They also rated satisfaction with city functions and evaluated the environmental disruption of urban development. Results showed that evaluations of procedural justice in general domains influenced both judgments of procedural justice involving specific policies and evaluations of development programs. It also was revealed that procedural justice judgment in general domains was determined mainly by relational factors such as perceived respect from the city administration. It is suggested that procedural justice and relational factors are crucially important in the making and execution of public policies.
This experimental study examined the effects of relative differences in the social skills of two persons interacting with one another with respect to each person's interpersonal stress reactions. Pairs of subjects made 10-min conversations in a laboratory. Each subject's social skills, psychological stress reactions, and eyeblinks were measured. Fifty-seven undergraduates (22 male and 35 female) participated. Subjects with lower levels of social skills than their partners exhibited more psychological stress reactions (anger, depression, and anxiety) and blinked more frequently. These findings suggest that we should consider the relative differences in social skills of two persons when evaluating the degree of interpersonal stress reactions
The present study has two major aims : to clarify the characteristics of social support for international Chinese students in Japan, and to examine the effects of social support on them. First we reviewed past studies on social support and discussed the definitions, conceptual constructions, and models about the effects of social support on mental and physical health. Second, we tried to identify the characteristics of social support for international Chinese students in Japan through six successive studies : (1) constructing a social support scale for Chinese students, (2) measuring three dimensions of support (required, perceived, and received) and investigating the connections and distinctions among them, (3) examining the relationships between support and the demographic characteristics of Chinese students, (4) analyzing the sources of support for Chinese students, (5) comparing the differences in support between Chinese and Japanese students, and (6) investigating the long-term changes of support for Chinese students. Next we carried out the following seven studies to test the effects of support : (1) examining the effects of three kinds of support on the adjustment of Chinese students, (2) examining the effects of support from various sources on their adjustment, (3) comparing the differences in the association of support and adjustment between Chinese and Japanese students, (4) investigating long-term changes of the effects of support on the adjustment of Chinese students, (5) examining the long-term effects of personality and support on their adjustment, (6) examining the self reported effects of support by students, and (7) proposing an expanded matching hypothesis. The findings from these thirteen studies are then summarized, and the related methodological problems are mentioned. Finally, several tasks for future research on social sopport for international Chinese students in Japan are suggested from a new viewpoint, and some suggestions for social support for international foreign students in Japan are proposed.