Both field observations of passengers in cars and accident analyse were conducted to clarify the influences of passengers on automobile accidents. Items investigated in both studies included the age and gender of both driver and passenger, and the number of passengers. We used data on accidents occurring in the Tsukuba area (N=957), where observational studies were conducted (N=2682). An accident case study (N=206) was also done to examine the types of passenger-related effects. Log-linear analysis indicated that accident risk was higher when carrying two or more passengers or when driving alone than when carrying only one passenger, and risk was also higher when males or children were passengers. These passenger effects were discussed in terms of communication, distraction, and conformity to passenger norms.
The dilution effect in evaluative judgment refers to that the non-diagnostic information reducing the implications of diagnostic information. It was hypothesized that the amount of the ambivalence of added information would enhance the dilution effect when it was combined with either positive or negative information. In Experiment 1, 34 undergraduates were asked to evaluate the desirability of the combinations of a part time job and either a bonus or overtime work. The amount of ambivalence was manipulated by varying the amounts of reward and labor in the part time jobs. The results suggested that the dilution effect was enhanced as the reward and labor of the jobs increased even when their ratios were constant. The combinations of part time job and either bonus or overtime work were also evaluated by 69 undergraduates in Experiment 2, which revealed that the evaluative orders of both more and less ambivalent jobs became reversed when the same amount of bonus or overtime work was added to them. These results suggest that the dilution effect is explainable within the ambivalence model of evaluative judgment.
The role of citizens in developing environmental policy in the case of the Chitose Drainage Canal Plan was studied through a survey in Sapporo, Japan. An attempt was made to determine why many people demand citizen participation in social decision making, even though they have no direct involvement with the issue. The results showed that citizens were considered a neutral agent, while the Hokkaido government, which behaved as mediator, was not considered neutral. Citizens might be expected to monitor the fairness of the decision process from the point of view of a "third party." The role of experts, who were evaluated to be specialized and fair, was also discussed.
This research examined the effects of conversational restraint, called "Restraint on Negative Feedback (RNF)" on the relational partner's dissatisfaction with interpersonal relationship, which are assumed to be influenced by two factors : 1) whether the partner's perception/estimation of the actor's RNF is correct or incorrect, and 2) whether the partner's evaluation of RNF is positive or negative. Dyadic data obtained by a snowball-sampling mail survey revealed that 41% of the partners' perception/estimation of the actors' RNF were incorrect, and that even these misunderstandings had effects on the partners' dissatisfaction with the relationship. Especially in relationships where the partner's evaluations of RNF were negative, these misunderstandings generated positive illusions when the partner underestimated the actors' RNF, and negative illusion when they overestimated his/her RNF. These findings indicated the importance of considering the above two factors in dyadic data inquiring into interpersonal effects of RNF.
This study aimed, first, to examine sex differences in bullying behavior, and second, to probe for any relationships between "bullying among close friends" and the pupil's social skills and exclusiveness. A questionnaire was conducted, and approximately 450 fifth and sixth graders served as participants. The following results were obtained. Females experienced more bullying from close friends than did males, and this experience was likely to affect relational satisfaction with friends among females more than with friends among males. Furthermore, path-analysis was conducted to determine if social skills and exclusiveness might predict victimization as well as bullying. The path model fit males better than females, with both predictors having significant paths to the two outcome factors, while females only showed exclusiveness as predictive of these factors, and not social skills.
The oppression hypothesis, originally advocated by N. Henley, expects that superiors have greater control beyond their own space and claim greater space than subordinates. This projective study using computer simulation examined the effects of gender and status on both approach distance and approached distance among Japanese company employees to verify the oppression hypothesis. Results indicated that neither gender nor status affected the two types of distance, and thus the oppression hypothesis was not supported. Rather, the relation-ship of subjects and the persons they were interacting with was important. That is, subjects took the shortest distance with fellow officers and the greatest distance with superior officers. In particular, female subjects kept male superiors farthest away from them. Further studies are suggested to control status variables strictly and introduce cross-cultural standpoints.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of early adult attachment styles on intimate opposite-sex relationships. In particular, this study focused on the theoretical duality of attachment. Thus, for examining the validity and adjustability of attachment styles on both relational and general distinctions, the images toward romantic love and experiences in a specific relationship were distinguished in this study. Subjects were 449 undergraduates. The results revealed that (a) "secure" individuals tended to have relatively positive images toward romantic love, showed high scores on Sternberg's three components of love, and valued the importance of the relationship highly, (b) oppositely, "avoidant" individuals had relatively negative images toward romantic love, showed low scores on the three components of love, and did not regard the relationship as important, and (c) "ambivalent" individuals tended to hold an image of romantic love as one which imposes restraints from their partner. Moreover, causal models of the influence process among variables were constructed and analyzed for each attachment style, and the results showed that three attachment styles had different influence processes respectively. These indicated the self-fulfillment of attachment styles. These results are discussed in terms of the validity and continuity of attachment styles.