The present study examined (a) the effect of the modes of goal setting and the feedback of the results of performance on causal attribution and (b) the relationship between causal attributions and goal aspirations for the next performance. In Experiment I, though no special information of the situation was given, the modes of goal setting and the feedback of results gave an interaction effect on ability attribution, but there was no relationship between causal attributions and goal aspirations. In Experiment II, information arousing one's ability was given, but there was no effects on causal attributions and no relationship between causal attributions and goal aspirations. However, some relationship was found between the assessment of one's ability and goal aspirations. In addition, comparing Experiment I and II, the feedback of the results gave interaction effects on ability, task difficulty and internal attributions. These results suggested that the cognitive aspects of the goal setting behavior involved the interpretation of the results of performance, the goal setting process for the next behavior, and the control of the behavior itself.
The purpose of the present study was to examine some factors influencing reciprocative help: Two variables, help intentionality (voluntary and compulsory help) and experience of being helped (first < no prior > and again help < prior >), were manipulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design. In experiment, 313 subjects were confronted with a hypothesized helping situation and asked to answer several questions about their reactions to that situation. The results indicated that subjects in the prior help condition evaluated other more positively than subjects in the no prior help condition. The subjects in the voluntary help condition felt more positive other than the subjects in the compulsory condition. And prior help made them have more willingness of reciprocation. However, help intentionality had no effect on that willingness. These results were discussed in terms of reciprocity theory.
The author has argued cultures of commonality from various point of view. The study of culture in peoples' life is possible to approach from various point of view. In this study, "torimonocho" (torimonocho stories Edo-era) is the material to use to prove the origin of popular arts, because the stories provides excellent subjects for a social psychological research. The author has analyzed stones and summarized many "torimonocho" into several chapters followed. First, the historical and social factors were discussed. Next, the relations to the modern detective stories, to the adventure novels and other kinds of fictions. Then, the relation to characteristics of the Edo-era and to the story composition. Moreover, the popularization of "torimonocho" in it's early day was discussed.
The effect of reward and information on subsequent intrinsic motivation were investigated. In Exp. 1 subjects were given information that they were high or low in interest in the task. High-information subjects were more intrinsically motivated than low-information subjects. The effect of information was discussed in terms of self-perception theory. In Exp. 2 subjects were assigned to one of three conditions : (1) no reward condition, (2) reward condition, (3) reward with information condition. In the 3rd condition subjects were given information that rewarder had no intention of controlling subjects with the reward. The reward condition was found to reduce intrinsic motivation relative to no reward condition. But reward condition accompanied with the appropriate information did not decrease intrinsic motivation relative to no reward condition. The result suggests that the effect of rewards on intrinsic motivation depends on the interpersonal context of rewarder and rewardee.
The first study was carried out to examine a hypothesis: there is a positive relationship between internality and pro-environmental orientation. Internality and pro-environmental orientation were respectively measured by means of a Japanese version of Rotter's locus of control scale and a 34-item five-point scale which had five dimensions of pro-environmental attitudes. Data was collected from 163 Japanese undergraduates and the hypothesis was generally supported. The second study tested a hypothesis: there is a positive relationship between noise sensitivity and pro-environmental orientation. Noise sensitivity as a personal disposition was measured by a 21-item five-point scale and the same pro-environmental orientation measures were obtained as were in the first study. Data was collected from 147 undergraduates and this hypothesis was also evidenced.
The present experiments were designed to assess a change in the image of Japan and the Japanese induced by introducing subjects to the Japanese culture and life-style with an informative film. These investigations were carried out in Australia, Brazil, France, West Germany, Hungary, India, Kenya, The Philippines, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and The United States of America. Subjects were approximately 160 adults and 160 adolescents (120 in the film-watching condition and 40 in the control condition) in each country. Subjects' image of Japan, the Japanese, themselves, their own country and other related variables were measured either after the experimental manipulation (adults), or before and after the manipulation (adolescents). A significant image change in the favorable direction was found in most countries. Analyses of relations of image and image change to other variables were reported.