This study adopted the perspective of CEST (Epstein, 1994), and examined whether the Japanese version of REI (Naito, Sakamoto, and Suzuki, 2000), which measures rational and experiential thinking styles, was related to performance in a ratio-bias paradigm (Study 1), and the Linda problem (Study 2). Study 1 revealed that rational thinking style was inversely related to nonoptimal responses in the ratio-bias paradigm, while experiential thinking style was unrelated to it. These results were consistent with the results of Pacini and Epstein (1999). Study 1 also suggested the possibility that the ratio-bias paradigm was not adequate for identifying the function of the experiential system. Study 2 revealed that rational thinking style was inversely related to nonoptimal response in the Linda problem, while experiential thinking style was positively related. These results demonstated the utility of the Japanese version of REI for examining individual differences on judgment, as well as the necessity of using a task which can clearly identify the functions of both systems.
This study investigated the uses and impacts of information sources, such as web sites, alumni and friends, during college student job hunting. Forty-nine college students (27 males, 22 females) were surveyed longitudinally regarding the information they sought for. This information was categorized into four types: company characteristics, company impression, job hunting methods, and self during job hunting. Results showed that there was a specific information medium that enabled the participants to acquire the required information easily. In particular, participants indicated that the information obtained from alumni was useful, as well as generally fruitful. However, web sites and friends were not particularly effective information sources with regard to obtaining desired results.
The authors tested the hypothesis that the causal relations from knowledge structures on social rules to socially delinquent behavior tendencies (SDBT) are mediated by self-serving cognitive distortion (CD). In addition, evaluation of the configuration invariance of the causal relations between the original (OV: based on Yoshizawa & Yoshida, 2003b) and simplified (SV) versions of the Knowledge Structures Measure was done. Knowledge structures were assessed by participants' means of applying social rules to interpersonal conflict situations based upon three indices: the inter-independence of social rules, the consistency of these rules, and their general appropriateness. SV was developed by excluding the rule generating procedure. Results indicated that both the causal relations from knowledge structures by OV to SDBT, and the mediational process of CD were partially supported. Comparison between the two measures indicated that simplification of Knowledge Structures Measure was functionally validated in predicting CD and SDBT. Discussion of the improvements attained by the simplified version, and of some problems raised by it, focusing on the causal relationship between this measure and SDBT, was conducted.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of interpersonal motivation (IM) and social interaction experiences (SIE) on negative interpersonal affect (NIA) reduction. A longitudinal study of 156 male and female university and nursing school students (mainly freshman) was conducted twice during a one-week interval in April. In the first session, the participants were asked to focus on a specific target person in order to rate IM and NIA towards that person. In the second session, participants rated [NIA] toward the same target using the same procedure as the first session. The participants were also asked to report on their frequency of social interaction. Multiple regression analysis was performed, and it was evident that the relationship with the target person was important in promoting IM. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the higher the "motive to approach," the more "incompatibility" was reduced. However, against the hypotheses, SIE showed no significant effect on any NIA reduction.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the influences of two types of goal intentions (local-environment focused and environmental-problem focused) on environment-conscious behavior. A questionnaire was randomly assigned to 735 residents who lived in the area within 2 km of the Muko River. Upon analyzing the results, goal intention could be divided into two types. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that behavioral intention was significantly influenced by a local-environment focused goal intention, social norms, cost evaluation and attachment to the Muko River, but not by an environmental-problem focused goal intention. These results suggest that people adopt environment-conscious behavior from the point of view of local conservation, and not overall environmental preservation.
In this study, the authors have paid attention to people's reactions to others' self-derogative presentation. Study 1 indicated that people have the script that a self-derogative presentation would elicit a denial response, such as "I don't think so," from the receivers. Moreover, it was also suggested that the derogator has the tendency to believe that the receiver's reaction has an effect of either maintaining or enhancing self-evaluation. Study 2 suggested that the Japanese would make self-derogative presentations, not only on the basis of interpersonal motivations, but also on the basis of self-affirmative motivations. The necessity of examining the details of the effects of self-derogation and the receivers' reactions was discussed.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of mass media reports on risk perception and images of victims. Study 1, which examined newspaper articles about human deaths, revealed that: (1) the ages of dead persons tended to be reported in headlines when they were very young or very old, and (2) suicides were reported more, while murders were reported less relative to actual rate of occurrence per population. Study 2 conducted through a survey revealed that: (1) the main information source of traffic accidents, fires, suicides, and murders was the mass media, and (2) more than half of respondents had some personal experiences with traffic accidents (more than 80%) and fire (more than 50%). Also, it was apparent that (3) the respondent's estimates and the amount of exposure to mass media reports about the distribution of dead persons over a lifetime period were correlated. The implications of these findings and future problems to be solved were discussed.